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automobile systems and subsystems

When computed over 6 years using an 8 percent discount rate for future savings, the resulting net present value (NPV) for the redesign is $335. See for example . Battery Chargers. At a production of 500,000 annual units, the projected cost of the CEM is $293 and the cost of the controller is $303, with a total cost of $705 including assembly ($31) and a markup (15 percent for the CEM and 10 percent for the controller). As the number of potential vehicle fuel cell manufacturers has been reduced in the current (2009) time frame, it is extremely important to maintain continuity and commitment regarding fuel cell technology from the perspective of the United States. The VT program, in collaboration with the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), manages the electrochemical energy storage technology program with a goal of the advancement of battery technologies, to the point that the program partners are encouraged to introduce hybrid and electric vehicles with large market potential. Some of these consist of thousands of component parts that have evolved from breakthroughs in existing technology or from new technologies such as electronic computers, high-strength plastics, and new alloys of steel and nonferrous metals. The Partnership has established a series of “abuse” tests to characterize the behavior and safety potential of cells and entire batteries under off-design conditions that might be encountered in practical operation. Hydrogen storage is shown together with the new targets (volumetric and gravimetric capacity only). Also, full battery system development is done in collaboration with the USABC through competitive subcontracts that are at least 50 percent cost-shared. Anderson, B., and I. A slow revolving engine produces little power which is not sufficient to accelerate. ANL (Argonne National Laboratory). Before discussing the interaction of various systems, let us first enumerate the various systems that are present in an automobile. 2008. FIGURE 3-10 Schematic of typical power-split hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle power-train configuration (such as Prius, Escape, and others). Also, the chemistries currently being considered for commercialization in HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs are different and inherently safer than the LiCoO2 cathode used in consumer applications. Additional sensing devices are being developed and integrated into the engine cylinder and power train that facilitate better control of the in-cylinder conditions and power-train energy flow management, which is a necessity for the integration of LTC operation into the engine map. This is where chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy. Most basic subsystems would be body, chassis, powertrain, and U for network communications. Fuel consumption would then be expected to be reduced by at least 6 percent, resulting in a new fuel economy of at least 26.6 mpg. The Partnership should consider conducting a project to investigate induction motors as replacements for the permanent magnet motors now almost universally used for electric propulsion. Alane regeneration has been achieved by means of adduct (Brookhaven National Laboratory). Recommendation 3-20. If vehicle fuel cell development is to continue, such funding must remain intact and must be directed at the R&D that can help enable OEMs to develop the complete vehicle fuel cell power-generation subsystem. The committee believes that sufficient fund-, ing currently exists in SiC and gallium nitride (GaN) development elsewhere. Engine Subsystems As you can see in the previous descriptions under "What Can Go Wrong," an engine has a number of systems that help it do its job of converting fuel into motion. Doped silicon (Si) devices are universally used, and the junction temperature needs to be kept below 125°C. Improved hydride kinetics by means of carbon aerogel scaffolds has been achieved (HRL Laboratories, LLC; and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). 9.1 shows a car network and three of the major subsystems in the car: the engine, the transmission, and the antilock braking system (ABS). is aimed at understanding the fundamental changes that occur in ignition and emission-formation processes when different compounds, such as methyl esters that are found in biofuels, are used in the engine. Thus, there would be an NPV incentive of more than $100 to the buyer if the one-time, up-front added material costs were under $200. In the nearer term, ambient physical storage provides a means for advancing the integrated hydrogen fuel cell system development and gaining experience while the materials storage approach is developed further. And, new, more stringent emission regulations for NOx and PM are scheduled to go into effect after 2010. (See “Annex to Onboard Hydrogen Storage” at the end of this chapter.). Induction motors. We recommend that lightweighting materials research funding not be redistributed to support other technology areas. The focus is on the two subsystems—battery chargers and system controllers—used in hybrid, electric, or fuel cell vehicles. The high cost of aerospace-quality carbon fiber is a major impediment to achieving cost-effective compressed hydrogen storage. The down-select decision on chemical hydrogen storage materials was made (2008). Although less efficient than motors currently used in. Components. A standardized method for these evaluations should be developed to ensure the safety of battery packs during vehicle operation as well as during plug-in charging. Although the details of the motor and motor controller are proprietary, the motor controller and motor are reported to have efficiencies of greater than 90 percent and greater than 93 percent, respectively, for a combined efficiency near 85 percent, which is truly remarkable at such speeds and frequencies. Expensive “aerospace quality” carbon fiber is needed in the construction of the onboard pressure vessel for hydrogen for HFCVs. The following is a compilation of these issues: System weight and volume: Too high for meeting the 300-mile range across a wide spectrum of vehicle platforms. This engine burns an air/fuel mixture inside itself in order to drive a series of pistons and connecting rods that in turn rotate a crankshaft providing us with a continuous rotating motion with which to drive the vehicle and other components… As discussed below, the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership gave a contract to investigate such materials to General Electric, but it appears that the program was discontinued. See Appendix C on Hydrogen Quality, to be updated as fuel purity analyses progress. “Sustainable energy resources” and “energy freedom” both suggest non-petroleum-based alternative fuels or electricity. It impacts the fuel cell developers as well as the supply chain. Although the Partnership has not set explicit objectives for battery safety, it clearly is a key element of vehicle safety and its definition by the industry. This work. The motor stator and motor controller can be liquid- or air-cooled, but the rotor must be air-cooled. This information will be needed in case the overall system-level targets for FreedomCAR need to be reset. The two cases of high power-to-energy ratio and the high energy-to-power ratio battery characteristics for PHEV applications are listed in Table 3-5. The newly organized Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE has taken on the coordination of the engineering aspects of material-based hydrogen storage systems. Allowable degradation outside these limits is TBD. Overall the number of HEVs sold has increased 271 percent from 2004 to 2008—from 84,000 to 312,000 vehicles—yet this represents only about 2.5 percent of the new vehicles sold in 2008. The electrical system on a modern automobile is tightly integrated with the engine, steering and suspension system. All of these changes will force an evolution in engine and power-train design, and consequently, the optimal power-train configuration, operating scenario, and fuel characteristics will also evolve. Since the Phase 2 review, there has been improvement in discharge and regen-, TABLE 3-4 Target Characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries for 2010. The Chassis electrical system is comprised of all wiring and components except for those used by the engine, its ancillaries, and any engine control circuits. TIAX also conducted several “what if” scenarios to determine which variable could reduce the battery cost to $250/kWh (the long-term goal). The recycling of advanced automotive batteries should be easier than that for small consumer batteries since there are existing programs on the. As a result of these programs, the core technology has advanced in such areas as fuel cell membranes, catalysts, operating modes, durability, lifetime, and the scientific evaluation of the factors limiting performance (e.g., gas quality), to name a few, while projected costs have continually decreased. System controllers need to control the vehicle in response to the driver’s commands. New concepts, cost-reduction R&D, and alternative engineering approaches must remain the focus of the DOE funding, especially for the development of next-generation technologies. It was again increased to $48 million in FY 2008 and to $69 million for FY 2009. catalysts to address the cost, reliability, and durability challenges is reflected in the current budget. Pending fuel economy standards will impact the vehicle mix as the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet turns over. The advanced combustion and emission control technical team should engage with the biofuels research community to ensure that the biofuels research which the team is conducting is consistent with and leverages the latest developments in the field of biofuels R&D. The amount of slip depends on the amount of pressure applied. Available on the Web at . Heating and cooling system A heating and cooling system that can let that automobile become warmer or cooler. The BES focuses on long-term needs, such as a basic understanding of materials, interfacial charge transfer, and the development of tools and processes for the design of new materials. Two rotor and two stator concepts were developed and analyzed in detail. The electrical system on a modern automobile is tightly integrated with the engine, steering and suspension system. Recommendation 3-5. Recommendation 3-3. The hydrogen storage technical team is a joint technical team with participants from both the automotive and the fuel industries. What is to be created Subsystem-is a system in its own right, except it normally will www.nasa.gov not provide a useful function on its own, it must be integrated with other subsystems (or systems) to make a system. Although it is difficult to assess the specific technologies adopted by the OEMs, and the origins of the technologies, the degree of success is apparent. starting the car. There will be interactions among the fuel, the engine, and the exhaust-gas after-treatment subsystems. In the opinion of the committee, this is the kind of stretch technology that is needed to reduce component size and material cost. A car is a system with several subsystems, including the braking subsystem, the electrical subsystem, the engine, the fuel subsystem, the climate-control subsystem, and the passenger subsystem. But mass is not the same as size, and with efficient designs, low-mass cars can be made safe by improving crash-management design and reducing the frequency of accidents through improved accident-avoidance systems in vehicles and on highways. Current HEVs use NiMH or PbA batteries that place minimal requirements on the charger. Fiscal Year 2009 Participating Organizations: Independent Projects in Hydrogen Storage, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Gas Technology Institute; H2 Technology Consulting LLC; Quantum Technologies; TIAX; UOP; UTRC, Alfred U.; Hydrogen Education Foundation; Michigan Tech; Missouri-Columbia; Northwestern, Penn State; Purdue; Southwest Research Institute; SUNY-Syracuse; U of Arkansas; UC Berkeley; UCLA; UC Santa Barbara; University of Connecticut; U Penn/Drexel. Available on the Web at . The exception to this is a remarkable drive for the compressor expander motor (CEM) of the air supply system for a fuel cell balance of plant as discussed below.21. However, KIVA III is more than 10 years old and lacks important, modern numerical technologies such as parallel computing. Importantly, the materials technical team has shown that major cost savings appear possible through the use of polyolefin for the feedstock in making carbon fibers.22 As with all lightweight materials applications, the trade-offs between cost and weight will need to be reevaluated as the price of oil changes. The third volume in the FreedomCAR series states that, although the partnership's recent shift of focus toward technologies that could be ready for use in the nearer term--such as advanced combustion engines and plug-in electric vehicles--is warranted, R&D on hydrogen and fuel cells is also needed given the high costs and challenges that many of the technologies must overcome before widespread use. No allowable performance degradation from −20C to 40C.

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