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mangrove distribution map

Mangroves appear dark green on the original image (left) and the classified mangroves, indicated as red polygons (right). 2016. In situ data were collected within a 15-year period after the SRTM data were obtained. Rivera-Monroy, E. Castaneda-Moya, N. Thomas, and T. Van der Stocken. Nelson, A. Ngomanda, E.M. Nogueira, E. Ortiz-Malavassi, R. Pélissier, P. Ploton, C.M. RIS (Others). Rivera-Monroy, E. Castaneda-Moya, N. Thomas, and T. Van der Stocken. Estimates of 1) mangrove aboveground biomass (AGB), 2) maximum canopy height (height of the tallest tree), and 3) basal-area weighted height (individual tree heights weighted in proportion to their basal area) for the nominal year 2000 were derived across a 30-meter resolution global mangrove ecotype extent map using remotely-sensed canopy height measurements and region-specific allometric models. the present status and distributions of mangrove forests of the worldisinadequate.Currentestimatesof thetotalareaof global mangroves ranges from 110,000 to 240,000 km2 (Wilkie and Fortune, 2003; FAO, 2007). We digitized mangroves directly in Google Earth software and used a set of image interpretation attributes to distinguish mangrove from other features. Prev | Next : Mangrove Forests Distribution (2000): Africa. I am interested in the mangrove biogeographic region map by Fortes and Salmo (2015). Acknowledgements. There are approximately 40 species of mangroves distributed worldwide. Ninety percent of the Florida mangroves are in southern Florida, in Collier, Lee, Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height Estimates from Remote Imagery, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique. Regional distribution and habitat Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information. The GLAS lidar-derived maximum canopy height is defined as the height of the lidar pulse containing all its energy between the ground and the top of the tallest tree (referred to as the relative height of the 100th percentile, RH100). Some secrete excess salt through their leaves, while others block absorption of salt at their roots.Florida's estimated 469,000 acres of mangrove forests contribute to the overall health of the state's southern coastal zone. 2014. Uncertainty was addressed by calibration with ICESat/GLAS Spaceborne Lidar mission data, refining the range of elevation data identified as mangrove cover, and subsequent validation by field data. GLAS lidar altimetry data were collected globally from 2003 to 2009, providing the only global lidar canopy and height measurement, with sparse samples distributed across the globe. A transect will be used to measure distribution for the mangrove study at Bobbin Head. “We collected all of the lidar data that intersected Giri’s mangrove map and used that to calibrate the SRTM data to get a global map of mangrove canopy height.” According to Simard et al. 2010. These spatially explicit maps of mangrove canopy height and AGB derived from space-borne remote sensing data and in situ measurements can be used to assess local-scale geophysical and environmental conditions that may regulate forest structure and carbon cycle dynamics. (2014) generalized pantropical tree allometric model was used with species-specific wood density from the global wood density database (Chave et al., 2009) to calculate the above- and belowground (root) biomass of individual trees. Saldarriaga, and G. Vieilledent. Nature Geoscience, 12: 40–45. Mangroves are one of Florida's true natives. The selected field sites (331 plots in total) included a wide variety of forest structure and mangrove ecotypes (for example, scrub, fringe, riverine and basin) with measured in situ tree heights ranging from 1 to 65 m. The mangrove field sites (Figure 2a) were distributed along a latitudinal range from 26º S (Maputo Reserve, Mozambique) to 25º N (Everglades, USA), encompassing the equatorial region. There are 348 data files in GeoTIFF format (.tif) with this dataset representing three data products for each of 116 countries. A total of 0.4 million hectares (48 per cent) are found in Queensland and 0.3 million hectares (37 per cent) are in the Northern Territory. The species distribution models aimed to produce a map of potentially suitable locations for mangroves according to selected environmental variables, focusing on the ecological and climatic requirements of the investigated species. A program to monitor the mangroves and associated communities within Moreton Bay was established by the Queensland Government 2011. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Ryan, J.G. GE has been used to map land cover [69,105], to delineate ecosystems , map rock glaciers , and identify atolls or coastal engineering structures . Regional climates are characterised by warm to hot monsoonal summers that can at times be quite dry, and sometimes very wet. The Mangrove forest type is found in all mainland states and the Northern Territory (Map 1). 2019-05-02, Dataset Version: Delitti, A. Duque, T. Eid, P.M. Fearnside, R.C. CMS: Aboveground Biomass for Mangrove Forest, Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x. Mangrove forests, consisting of multiple taxa of tropical macrophytes, are distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world [1,2,3].The upper latitudinal limits of global distribution, extending into the temperate regions, are characterized by decreased abundance, reduced species diversity, and decreased tree vigor, growth, and biomass (Figure 1). ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Hi, There is no “official” mangrove biogeographic region set yet for the Philippines. Why map seagrass and mangroves. Image courtesy of Earth Observatory. Analysis of canopy height variance obtained from SRTM, lidar, and field measurements demonstrated that SRTM height characterizes mean overstory canopy height and maintains consistency over time when measuring canopy height in established mangrove forests. Mangrove wetlands are among the most productive and carbon-dense ecosystems in the world. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01285.x, Chave, J., M. Rejou-Mechain, A. Búrquez, E. Chidumayo, M.S. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. All Fields: search. Welcome to Global Mangrove Watch Monitoring to catalyse the action needed to protect and restore mangroves . In these instances, mangroves usually establish in low elevation sites where inundation is more frequent1. R. mangle is one of approximately 35 species of true mangroves, with another 60 or more species of mangrove associates ().Most of these species occur in the Indo-Pacific region, with R. mangle being one of the three species that commonly occur in the Americas.R. The mangrove flora is unique in nature due to its restricted distribution only to the tidal zones. This study offers a baseline to monitor national and regional trends in mangrove carbon stocks (Simard et al., 2019). In this study, Osland et al. Value of Mangroves. Conservation of Mangroves. As well as providing habitat for biodiversity they provide many services for people. Research looks to the past to identify historical changes in mangrove and salt marsh dominance and distribution over the past 250 years. This map shows the distribution of burnt forest in Australia, by the number of times each hectare was burnt in the period 2011–12 to 2015–16: PNG [1.0 MB], PDF [2.1MB]. Diversity of mangrove … According to both models, the largest area with restoration potential occurs along the Guangdong and Guangxi coast. This research was jointly supported by the National … There are 348 data files in GeoTIFF format (.tif) with this dataset. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0279-1. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, v1 (2000) The database was prepared using Landsat satellite data from the year 2000. study is to map out spatial distribution of mangrove using Sentinel 2A imagery high spatial resolution and GIS technology with acquired in April 05th 2018. ENW (EndNote & RefWorks)† Grey Mangroves may grow with river, red and other mangrove species. In addition to Hmax, a map of Hba, the basal area weighted height was generated and used as input for the AGB map. Swenson, and A.E. Global Mangrove Distribution, Aboveground Biomass, and Canopy Height. Mangrove distribution on the island of Pohnpei, 2020. Copyright © 1997–2020. About one third of the world’s mangroves are found in Asia (39%), followed by Africa (21%) and North and Central America (15%) (FAO, 2007). Dieses Element wird von der ArcGIS Hub-Anwendung verwaltet. The global model was generated using all of the plot data (n = 331) and Hba of the field data, while the regional models were generated for the Americas (using data from Colombia, USA, Venezuela, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, n = 81), East Africa (using data from Mozambique, n = 101) and South Asia (using data from Bangladesh, n = 149). The Moreton Bay region has approximately 20,000 ha intertidal communities, mostly mangroves and saltmarsh. Based on the analysis, from the research data obtained the total area of mangrove in Riau Islands in 2011 and 2017 amounted to 71,504.83 Ha and 64,218.90 Ha, … In western of research location exactly at Station 1 and Station 2, the density value of mangrove was 450 and 825 tree ha-1, respectively with sparse category because they were contaminated by waste and litter. A model relating mangrove biomass to temperature and precipitation has been used, together with global mangrove distribution maps, to estimate the total aboveground biomass worldwide as 2.83 Pg dry weight (95% confidence interval 2.18–3.40 Pg), and the base area average as 184.8 t dry weight ha −1 (95% CI 142.1–222.0 t ha −1). Climatic conditions vary widely reflecting the 18º spread of latitude covered by the state. This procedure is a two-step process where SRTM is converted to SRTMHba and then to AGB using appropriate field-derived Hba to AGB allometry. Version 1.0: Preliminary data were released in November 2018 to accompany the publication of the Simard et al, 2019 paper in Nature Geosciences. Links. West zone 2. Spatially explicit maps of mangrove canopy height and AGB derived from space-borne remote sensing data and in situ measurements can be used to assess local-scale geophysical and environmental conditions that may regulate forest structure and carbon cycle dynamics. Mangroves are found mainly along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, west coast of Sarawak and the east coast of Sabah. The predicted northern limit of mangrove distribution was around 28°27' N-28°35' N. Using the RPI approach, 16,800 ha with the potential to restore mangrove forests was identified. To meet the need for accurate and reliable information on the present extent of mangrove forests of the region, our study prepared a geospatial data base of mangrove distribution for the year 2005 using Landsat data. Mangrove-leaved Daisy-bush species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Non-native Establishment status: GB Establishment Status - Established. Thank you! Mangroves in Queensland inhabit a diverse range of coastal and estuarine environments, notably present in around 18% of the 13,347 km coastline. Figure 1. Typically surrounding salient river deltas, mangrove regions support a variety of halophytes. Red mangroves in North Queensland may grow to 20 m high, though trees of 4 to 5 m are more common elsewhere. Contact for Data Center Access Information: Chave, J., D. Coomes, S. Jansen, S.L. 2018, the Gabon Estuary in West Africa is home to the tallest mangrove trees in the world reaching 65 meters (213 feet) tall. Zanne. SRTMHba was calculated by relating field values of Hba  to SRTM DEM elevations: where HSRTM represents the original SRTM DEM and SRTMHba the new basal area weighted canopy height dataset. 2019. There are approximately 40 species of mangroves distributed worldwide. Aerial roots growing from the tree´s limbs also help the plant breathe. Simard, M., L. Fatpyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. Grey Mangroves occur commonly in intertidal margins of estuaries, tidal river bank shorelines and brackish river areas. The dataset was created using Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive.Approximately 1,000 Landsat scenes were interpreted using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Some secrete excess salt through their leaves, while others block absorption of salt at their roots.Florida's estimated 469,000 acres of mangrove forests contribute to the overall health of the state's southern coastal zone. Other secondary factors are: air temperature, salinity, ocean currents, storms, shore slope, and soil substrate. Stout, large arching prop roots are characteristic of the species, which support the main trunk and contain numerous lenticels (air pores) on their surfaces. We determined that there are 3657 ha of mangroves covering 35% of the coastline of the archipelago. Theme Climate (5) Conservation (5) Marine and Coastal (5) Remote Sensing (5) Sustainability (5) Region Africa (1) Asia (2) North America (1) South America (1) 1 of 1. 2019. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1670, Spatial Coverage: Global within a circum-equatorial band from 31 degrees north to 39 degrees south, Temporal Coverage: 2000-01-01 to 2009-12-31, Temporal Resolution: One-time estimates for nominal year 2000, Study Area (All latitudes and longitudes are given in decimal degrees). AGB was estimated for each individual tree tagged inside the plot, using regional or site-specific allometric equations as described by previous studies. The SRTM estimates of Hmax (that is, SRTMHmax) were validated with in situ collected data in Pongara National Park to confirm the validity of the tallest canopy height values in Gabon. Mangroves are one of the most important and productive ecosystems on earth, providing a host of invaluable ecosystem goods and services to local people and the wider world. Results were validated with in situ canopy height measurements and aboveground biomass estimates from field plots distributed across three continents. They are oval, pointed and arranged opposite one another on the stems. To identify mangrove ecotype areas and mask non-mangrove regions in the SRTM elevation dataset, we used the global mangrove extent map from Giri et al. Mangroves in Hong Kong. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1665 of stems) was estimated for each plot and expressed per unit area (in ha). The research, published in PNAS, found that mangrove poleward expansion and the changes in community … Thriving mangroves are key to the health of nature and effective climate action. Generate your report in https://mangrove-atlas.org. Forty species of mangroves dominate approximately 75% of the world’s tropical coastlines between 25° N and 25° S. In certain locations, this range extends beyond these limits due to the movement of unusually warm waters from the equator. Mangrove distribution is primarily determined by sea level and its fluctuations. NY: World Mangrove Atlas by Spalding, M., Blasco, F., Field, C., International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, WCMC, National Council for Scientific Research, Paris. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Earlier global land-cover initiatives failed to map mangrove areas with sufficient detail because sat- 2019. process of making mangrove distribution map. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1522, Lagomasino, D., T. Fatoyinbo, S. Lee, E. Feliciano, C. Trettin, A. Shapiro, and M. Mwita. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20: 154-159. https;//doi.org/:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x, Simard, M., L. Fatoyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. Maps revealed a wide range of canopy heights, including maximum values (> 62 m) that surpass maximum heights of other forest types. R. mangle is one of approximately 35 species of true mangroves, with another 60 or more species of mangrove associates ().Most of these species occur in the Indo-Pacific region, with R. mangle being one of the three species that commonly occur in the Americas.R. The main trunk is erect and covered by rough, reddish-brown bark. Subspecies A. m. marina is found in Western Australia from Bunbury in th… However, in Eastern Australia, mangroves do extend along temperate coastlines where their distribution overlaps with saltmarsh communities. CMS: Mangrove Forest Cover Extent and Change across Major River Deltas, 2000-2016. Following is a brief synopsis of the data processing and modeling methods implemented to produce the three mangrove products. The mangrove species distribution map serves as a foundation for conservation and management of mangroves in MPMNR. Local Mangrove Species. Figure 8 shows spatially explicit map of mangroves distribution in Malaysia as of year 2017. Map style. Application and information are then presented in web form. Publication date 1997 Publisher International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems Collection biodiversity Digitizing sponsor UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge Contributor UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge Language English Volume 1997. The Eastern Group (Eastern Hemisphere) incorporates East Africa, the Red Sea, India, Southeast Asia, Southern Japan, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific archipelago, as far east as Samoa. Zones in the mangroves . Light. Mangrove Action Project (MAP) is a US-based nonprofit which collaborates with individuals and organizations at all levels to preserve, conserve, and restore our world’s mangrove forests. Mangroves are among the most biologically important ecosystems on the planet, and a common feature of tropical and sub-tropical coastlines. The Chave et al. Global mangrove biomass allometry development. The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions. Archive Center Ecology Letters, 12: 351–366. Home | Data | Data Uses | Data Citations | Maps | Map Services, News | Tools | Guides | Publications | Blog Posts, About | Help | Privacy | User Registration. Tree density (that is, the no. The total aboveground carbon stocks per country were calculated assuming a stoichiometric factor of 0.451 as the AGB conversion factor. These do not take root even after … Abundance refers to the number of individuals in the area. The global biomass allometric model had a root mean square error (RMSE) of 87.9 and correlation coefficient R2 of 0.62. Global Mangrove Distribution (USGS) Oct 23, 2013 Uploaded by Heidi Hausman. NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Regional and global models were generated between plot-level canopy height and plot-level AGB density, where height and AGB relationships were fitted to the regression model: where Hx can represent either Hba or Hmax. Version 1.1: Science-quality data were released in March 2019. Their results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern U.S. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0279-1, Lagomasino, D., T. Fatoyinbo, S. Lee, E. Feliciano, M. Simard, and C. Trettin. Mangrove forests in coastal Gabon are the tallest globally with forest stands that were estimated up to 63 m. The photo insets show locations where individual trees were measured in situ up to 65 m tall (Simard et al., 2019). Distribution. Where To Look. Introduction. All preliminary data files were replaced with new files that incorporated some changes to the aboveground biomass estimation algorithm. The canopy height maps were generated using SRTM DEM data collected in February 2000 and lidar heights from the ICESat/GLAS Spaceborne Lidar mission. Regional biomass allometric models developed for this study had a combined RMSE of 57.2 Mg ha-1 (ranging from 46.6 Mg ha-1 to 72.0 Mg ha-1) and an R2 of 0.77. Mangroves in Queensland inhabit a diverse range of coastal and estuarine environments, notably present in around 18% of the 13,347 km coastline. We used readily available Google Earth very high-resolution imagery to map mangrove distribution in the Galapagos. 1. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1665. I hope I can get the title and the other details of the study so I can read the article. A Data Center in NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (, Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (, Central American Vegetation/Land Cover Classification and Conservation Status, v1 (, Global Development Potential Indices, v1 (, Global Grid of Probabilities of Urban Expansion to 2030, v1 (, Global Human Modification of Terrestrial Systems, v1 (, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x, Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, v1 (. Australia has 39 mangrove spec… The in situ field data were used to derive stand-level allometry between AGB, basal area weighted height Hba and maximum canopy height Hmax. The leaves are glossy green above with a distinctive pale and slightly hairy, g… Model projections for Pohnpei indicate that the mangroves are likely to be resilient to low and moderate rates of sea-level rise over the coming decades if they remain intact and healthy. Grey Mangrove distribution map - IUCN Red List. For all sites, field basal area weighted height Hba was calculated as. where Hi and ri are the height and radius (that is, DBH/2) of tree i, respectively, in meters. 1.2. The world map below shows where mangrove forests are located. * When authors make use of data they should cite both the data set and the scientific publication, if available. The geographical distribution of mangroves can be divided into two main regions, consisting of a Western Group and an Eastern Group. Florida mangrove plant communities covered an estimated 430,000 to 540,000 acres (1,700 to 2,200 km 2) in Florida in 1981. † For EndNote users, please check the Research Note field for issues with importing authors that are organizations when using the ENW file format. mangroves distribution are distinguished into two zones1 1. It is estimated a total of 15.2 million hectares of mangroves are exist worldwide and their main distribution is in the tropical areas. Colgan, W.B.C. Global map of mangrove maximum canopy height and location of sampling sites (numbers) where in situ data were collected. Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA-ECO), Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project (OTTER), Southern African Regional Science Initiative Project (SAFARI 2000), Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP II), Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom), Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America), Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0279-1, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01285.x, https;//doi.org/:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x, Mangrove basal-area weighted height (individual tree heights weighted in proportion to their basal area), Mangrove canopy maximum height (height of the tallest tree). 2005. As a general rule, zones of dominant mangrove species run parallel to the shoreline or to the banks of tidal creek systems. Giri, C., E. Ochieng, L. L. Tieszen, Z. Zhu, A. Singh, T. Loveland, J. Masek, and N. Duke. For each selected tree, the species was identified and the diameter at breast height (DBH) and height were measured using a laser rangefinder or clinometer. Maps revealed a wide range of canopy heights, including maximum values (> 62 m) that surpass maximum heights of other forest types. Seagrass and mangroves form highly productive and valuable ecosystems. ... articles and maps to document how mangrove distribution along the Florida coastline had been highly variable in the past 250 years. The data are available at 30-m spatial resolution. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. A regression model was applied relating GLAS RH100 to SRTM elevation measurements obtain a global map of maximum canopy height: where HSRTM represents the original SRTM DEM, and SRTMHmax is the new maximum canopy height data set. (DAAC). (2019) for more details. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. The study only included areas with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation values ranging from 0 to 55 m to eliminate inland areas over-classified as mangrove wetlands. They occupy a range of substrates from soft muds to sandy soils, and rocky to coral shorelines. Mangroves are one of Florida's true natives. Open in Map Open in Map Description: Status and distributions of global mangroves have been mapped using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. al, 2010. These have now been corrected. This study aims to map the mangrove distribution in Riau Islands, Indonesia. See Simard et al. The information provided below replaces the Mangroves and associated communities of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia: change in extent … Total root biomass was estimated as 49% of the AGB. (2011). (2019) for more details. Nature Geoscience, 12: 40–45. A mangrove forest map of China in 2015: Analysis of time series Landsat 7/8 and Sentinel-1A imagery in Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform But ground-based evidence suggests these vital coastal forests have been strained in many regions because of harvesting for food, fuel, and medicine. East zone. Climatic conditions vary widely reflecting the 18º spread of latitude covered by the state. Region Mangroves 1990 (ha) Mangroves 2000 … A combination of existing products were used, including the mangrove map of Giri et al. Mangrove forests are among Earth's most threatened ecosystems, yet the human and natural causes of their loss have not been quantified at the global scale. More than 1,000 Landsat scenes obtained from the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) were classified using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. In this study, Osland et al. Countries without Hba and Hmax data have been omitted. The sum of individual trees within the plot was then computed and normalized, using plot sizes, to represent total forest stand AGB density in Mg ha–1. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, v1 (2000) » Maps Follow Us: Twitter Follow Us on Facebook YouTube Flickr | Share: Twitter Facebook. Most mangroves live on muddy soils, but they also can grow on sand, peat, and coral rock. Global Change Biology, 20, 3177–3190. Simard, M., T. Fatoyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. Rivera-monroy, E. Castaneda-mova, N. Thomas, and T. Van der stocken. Mugasha, H.C. Muller-Landau, M. Mencuccini, B.W. Zonation often characterizes mangrove forests. This dataset shows the global distribution of mangrove forests, derived from earth observation satellite imagery. Version 1.2: Data files were updated in May 2019 because the height to biomass (AGB) conversion equations in the associated Nature Geoscience publication were correct but were implemented incorrectly when generating the publicly available data files. Grey mangrove generally grows to 25 m high, though trees of 10 to 15 m are common in Queensland under favourable conditions. Mangrove distribution for the world in 2000 — Giri, et. World map of mangrove distribution. We digitized mangroves directly in Google Earth software and used a set of image interpretation attributes to distinguish mangrove from other features. https://doi.org/10.7927/H4J67DW8. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. What is Mangrove? This dataset characterizes the global distribution, biomass, and canopy height of mangrove-forested wetlands based on remotely sensed and in situ field measurement data. Lewis, N.G. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000. View an interactive version of this map in ArcGIS Online map viewer here. They thrive in salty environments because they can obtain freshwater from saltwater.

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