railways in britain industrial revolution
The quality of the drawing is measured by the artist’s ability to become invisible. Wordsworth and the Lakes District: A Guide to the Poems and Their Place. The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in history which was marked by a shift in the world from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.It brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. Greater movement between the co… The accompanying verses from “The World is Too Much with Us” reflect Wordsworth’s feelings of growing isolation against the tide of changing times: “Little we see in nature that is ours; We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!”. Of upright spindles, which, with rapid whirl The Victorian Web. Castle at Huntingdon and Clare destroyed by line. This would be advantageous to day-trippers, as they would have more time at the chosen location to enjoy the sights. They become three-dimensional adding an almost tactile quality to the work, which creates the same sensation you have when you are flying in a plane and feel as if you could almost reach out and grab a cloud. Martin, R.M. It presents a new and fascinating form of entertainment, and for the elite it is an extremely fashionable way to spend the afternoon. The whimsical train spokes connote a carnival procession. Wordsworth led opposition against “contamination” of the Lakes District. He states simply that, the buildings to be built will be appealing in the quality of their material. Gladstone, when asked to choose his favorite line of poetry, placed Wordsworth’s “Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn” beside Milton for the crown. Spencer examined what he called the politics of the railways, and revealed the discrepancy between general public perception of railway financial activity, and the actuality of illegitimate and untenable practices. McCracken, David. The effect of railways in the Industrial Revolution is often exaggerated. In contrast, John Dyer’s poem, The Fleece, concludes with a mesmerizing account of the machine as a mere tool for productivity. Even this early project met with fierce landlord opposition. They were more likely to have a background in history or science and would be inflicted with the weight of this statement more than the uneducated working class. The women are in white, which we know would not be white for long if they were next to one of the early trains, and the men are very neat and tidy with silk hats so clean that they shine and reflect the sun. Wordsworth wrote poems and letters that were published in the Morning Post to gain the support of the public and specifically address the members of the Board of Trade and the House of Commons. The term “industrial revolution” is a succinct catchphrase to describe a historical period, starting in 18 th-century Great Britain, where the pace of change appeared to speed up. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1916. The effects of this are still being felt today, in the complex and often bewildering industrial relations of Britain’s railways. In Adam Smith’s Moral Philosophy: Concepts of Nature and Utility, “…the political machine seem to move with more harmony and ease… We take pleasure in beholding the perfection of so beautiful and so grand a system, and we are uneasy till we remove any obstruction that can in the least disturb or encumber the regularity of its motions” (Smith, 300). In 1868, Herbert Spencer published an essay on “Railway Morals and Railway Policy” in his collection Essays: Moral, Political, and Aesthetic. New interpretations of the Bible brought us from the view in Tudor England that “the creatures were not made for themselves, but for the use and service of man” (18), to the view in the late 17th century that “God loves the creatures that creep on the ground as well as the best saints” (166). World Wide Web: http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/technology/railway2.html. He assumes that building are a part of progress, and as with the railroads, progress in ‘intrinsically good.’. The Grasmere Journal. The union of steam and iron rails produced the railways, a new form of transport which boomed in the later nineteenth century, affecting industry and social life. In continental Europe, opening the railways to competition reduced costs—something that also happened when Britain’s buses were deregulated. 1750s. Industry, The expansion of production revolutionized the cotton industry with an influx of innovations–between the years 1760 and 1785, Britain’s cotton industry showed the possibility of unprecedented growth rates, production expanding tenfold (Perry, 334). In the first painting we were presented with a scene that showed people standing in awe of the train and though they are welcoming it into their lives there is still a love of nature. It also indicates that engineers may have had to endure a form of self-censorship much like artists today. The nature of Victorian change could be seen as demographic, environmental, social, and industrial. Jackson, “the landlords thought much more of the peacefulness of their own estates and mansions than of the public good, and the mental picture of a railway with its tail of smoke curling across the countryside … was to them the symbol of all that was disagreeable, vulgarizing and mercenary.” (p. 497, Jackson) Of course, it was those very “vulgarizing and mercenary” people, who had invested heavily in railway expansion, who put forward egalitarian arguments about railway usage. There are about 130,000 employees. This period brought rails out of the experimental field and into the application of common enterprise. Shareholders like George Hudson who recognized opportunity, new enterprises and big money to be made. Line proposed would break city wall on the north side, and would link with Great Eastern by running across Lower Close of cathedral. The proportions can be explained because industry has not yet overpowered nature, industry is still relatively small and controllable. Jackman, a rail historian explains the mindset of investors in this time, “Men were induced to believe that they had only to embark in one of these schemes to ensure themselves a life of affluence and ease” (532). This image provides a favorable outlook on that transition. One can hear the cries of the workers, the sharp whistles of the machines calling far and wide, their cry of alarm, the incessant sound of iron work and the formidable panting of steam. He felt that, in order to insure the regulation of the economy, the railways should be owned publicly. Railway historian Frederick S. Williams writes: “A rumor that it was proposed to bring such a thing as a railroad within a dozen miles of a particular neighborhood was enough to elicit adverse petitions to Parliament, and public subscriptions were opened to give effect to the opposition.” (p. 23, Williams) There were however, few cases that brought the nation together in protest: most of the opposition was by nature local, consisting of persons who were not, in theory, opposed to the idea of rail transport, but who fought railway encroachments on their own territory. Internet. If we are convinced that written historical text is unbiased truth, images provide another doorway through which we access the past. The Manchester Guardian published in account that in the space of one week, 89 new ventures had been advertised in three newspapers. The Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825 (1900). And the straw cottage to a palace turns, (11). The small puff of smoke that is portrayed is just that, small. The “carnival train” is an optimistic scene created by a well-to-do hobby painter. The Development of Roads and Railways Index. Through examining the portrayal of smoke and dirt, or lack there of, it is obvious that this is a time when industry was still associated with the purity and cleanliness of nature. London: T. Brettell, 1849. There is no working class pinned before the relentless speed of a locomotive. What they did do was allow the revolution to continue, provide further stimulus, and help to transform the mobility and diets of the population. In his letters, Wordsworth is “Clearly representing a minority, he speaks with both a sense of his argument’s limited popular authority, overriding sense of it’s rightness notwithstanding, and a desire to extend this authority as possible into the public sphere” (Mulvihill 311). In all likelihood, even if some goods costs are lessened the working class is still not going to be able to afford them. He and other engineers, however, by improving upon the railway made it more and more enticing to potential travelers and investors. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The most effective opposition movements took place largely during this period, as it was preemptive: by the second half of the century, railways had become a part of the landscape and the largest period of expansion was completed. Jackson, writing in 1916, could scarcely believe that some towns “rejected the boon that was offered them, and opposed the railways so strongly that they would not allow the company to build their line within the city limits. Although Wordsworth was not a politician of any sort he was able to gain much fame during his lifetime. Their witnessing man’s seemingly limitless abilities would definitely bring a feeling of awe and an element of prestige. Businessmen would have been excited with the increase in productivity that innovative machines made possible. Newton Abbot, London: David and Charles, 1986. He was relatively tactful in his communications with the public and was probably successful at gaining support through his literary campaign. To every member of th’harmonious frame In 1823, he petitioned both the Board of Agriculture and the Select Committee of the House of Commons (Jackmann 509). 12/6/99. In John Dyer’s poem, The Fleece (published in 1757), development is portrayed with excitement: New streets are marking in the neighb’ring fields, Not only technicians, but the educated in general, followed the latest inventions with scientific scrutiny. More so than in any of the other images, Image 4 is cluttered with structures made up of clearly defined lines. As industry took hold nature was neglected and trampled upon as new tracks were laid for the next railroad line. No one had come forward to talk of the dirt, filth and destruction attributed to industry. Moral Philosophy: Concepts of Nature and Utility. Nearly everyone, from the urban pickpocket running amuck in the new stations, to the remote and powerful country gentleman, experienced the changes railways were making in Victorian society. Giclee print of the steam engine used in erecting Shop Penn’s Marine Factory, Greenwich. Thomas Grey envisioned a national railway long before an amalgamation proved necessary. The small figures are similar to slaves working for their master, as the power of the machine grows and becomes more powerful than mankind. In this later period, there were 10,000 acts creating railways. Cleaveland-Stevens, Edward. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1971. Again he returns to the issue of the working classes taking excursions to the Lake District. Up until this time, the railway said offered means for the investment of capital, but they also offered adequate security and profit to ensure healthy growth. (pp. The Development of Transportation in Modern England. Railway opposition left a legacy of coalition building, and an infrastructure for further public action, whose effects would reach far beyond the individual victories and defeats of those “sentimental gentlemen” of the Victorian age. The Effects of Railways. Published: 24/10/2012 KS3 | Change and continuity | Industrial Age: 1750-1900 2 pages The influence of Charlton can be seen in the integration of urban and rural, the portrayal of the city folk enjoying the peace and beauty of the rural life. This is from circa 1830’s England. How much longer shall knowledge be allowed to go on increasing?” (Simmons 16). Railways developed in the first half of the nineteenth century and, after a slow start, boomed in two periods of railway mania. Findings such as these started to erode the idea that all things on earth were made for the express purpose of man. The model of train in the image closely resembles “the Rocket” built by Stephenson in 1829. The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution, A Beginner's Guide to the Industrial Revolution, The History of the Tom Thumb Steam Engine and Peter Cooper, George Stephenson and the Invention of the Steam Locomotive Engine, Significant Eras of the American Industrial Revolution, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. It was built to link the collieries in West Durham and Darlington with the docks on River Tees at Stockton, Durham. Many worried that the enormous cuttings and embankments rendered necessary by the weakness of early locomotive engines would subside, taking houses and people along with them. London: Noel Carrington, 1947. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992. 41-42, Williams). As time passed, there was a transformation of attitudes towards the train. World Wide Web: http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/ruskin/gallery/ruskin.punch.html. The purity is further exemplified by the people in the picture. Photograph of a nineteenth-century locomotive / From Immigration, Railroads, and the West / Harvard University Library, Edited by Dr. Robert Schwartz Also. A Letter of Appeal to the Board of Trade against Railway Companies and their Persistent Disobedience to the Law, by One who has Defeated them Five Times. These lines were built with the exclusive purpose of conveying commodities. Bury. The stark rendering is without any narrative. The audience is fascinated not with the machine in its entirety but the labeled parts; the artist concentrates not on the utility of the whole but of the anatomy of the components. The passage of the railway by Furness Abbey was the British one.” (pp. From the germ New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1987. Perhaps this event was the climax of Wordsworth’s failing health. The use of contrasting light and dark are also employed to add dimension to the trains and accent the desolate landscape. Essays: Moral, Political, and Aesthetic. 156-57, Abse). Godwin states that travel in general would take less time. But fact for whom? They also seemed to epitomize popular resentments toward a changing world picture: the depersonalization of workers and passengers, the altering of an established social pattern, and of course, their tendency to mow down anything that what happened to get in their way, be it public opposition, family land, natural beauties, national history, or even unwary pedestrians on its tracks. Flashing a fierce unconquerable greed – An Epitome of the New Lines of Railway in England which Parliament Will Probably Sanction with Reasons for their Doing So. Many of these arguments were ridiculed by transportation historians of the early twentieth century, and indeed by railway proponents of the day, but they deserve to be taken seriously. With one desire. Alexis De Tocqueville, “Manchester” from Journeys to England and Ireland, 1835, as cited in editor Alasdair Clayre’s Nature and Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 117. It is interesting to note that although Monet started painting city scenes early on in his career, he rejected industry and the modern world and went on to only paint scenes of nature painting out the industrial aspects if they were part of the scene that he was painting. The unnaturalness of the increase was also a point of concern for Wordsworth, who believed in the smaller scale of life that had been a part of the Romantic ideal of English country life. The railway was approved, the line passed over the site of the high altar. Spence, Jeoffrey. Did Cotton Drive the Industrial Revolution? Victorian Railways, Punch, and “Hudson’s Statue”. The Philosophy of Manufactures: The Blessings of the Factory System. Although not seen in this copy, the image’s most striking aspect is the contrast between the gleaming blue of the machine amidsts its drab surroundings. People of Northampton protested the line, claiming, as it was a shoe-making town, that the wool of their sheep would be harmed by the smoke. Similar to the “weaving machine,” this giant image overwhelms us with the technicalities of the whole. The Railways in the Industrial Revolution addition to textiles, and the Turnpike Act ensured that new roads were built. Almost all railway construction during this period was contested in one form or another, as each line had to be sanctioned by Parliament. Nor was his view necessarily contrary to general public opinion: Wordsworth captured an aspect of “Englishness” that his fellow countrymen identified with. The more evolved type of illustration included some sort of narrative, possibly from the increasing influence and input of various socioeconomic classes. This period brought rails out of the experimental fie… We realize something is missing– no steeple, no cross. Wordsworth responds to this proposal by humbly explaining that members of the working class would not have the capacity to appreciate the “beauty” and “character of seclusion and retirement” that the Lakes District had to offer. Industry becomes romantic and beautiful. Leading up to 1835, Britain had experimented with a few rails. Roads, Railways and Canals. New York: Methuen, 1986. When the Rocket stopped for water at Parkside, William Huskisson, MP for Liverpool, was killed when he stepped off the train and then panicked, running back onto the rails. Jackman, W.T. Many recognized their advent as the most important development of the age. You would not put rings on the fingers of a smith at his anvil.” (p. 96, Abse), Railway vandalism of British sites spurred the formation of societies for the preservation of antiquities. Spin out, in long extent, an even twine…(Klingender, 21). 4.5 15 customer reviews. Unlike Image 1, in this image there are no upper or middle class observers to be found, instead there are only a few people who appear to be part of a working class as they stand on or near the tracks. forward let us range. In one of the biggest paintings the Gare Saint-Lazare, the train has just pulled in and the engine is going to leave again. In the very first paragraph he stats. It also explains why the proportions between the people and the train are fairly equal, the people not being dwarfed by the train and vice versa. Around the monster, men swarm on the tracks like pygmies at the feet of a giant. According to Jackson’s 1916 history of transportation in Britain, “A farmer in Northampton refused his assent to the proposed London and Birmingham Railway on the ground that the smoke would injure the fleeces of his sheep.” (p. 498, Jackson) Many of those who had worked along the canals, or on the highways, or in one of the hundreds of roadside inns that flourished in the heyday of coach travel, felt their livelihoods threatened by the new locomotives. In 1829, the directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway held a contest for engineers to see who could build the best over all locomotive for their new line. Adam Smith also expressed a current of sentiment that regarded the machine as appreciable in its utility. They did not cause industrialization and had no impact on the changing locations of industries as they only developed after 1830 and were initially slow to catch on. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981. It was the first exclusively steam rail built for the dual purpose of carrying passengers and freight (256). Though the workers do not command the modes of production, as they did in bedroom workshops, they enjoy a spacious workspace and friendly interaction with this new machine. Which dignifies the artist, lifts the swain, Most importantly, these workers are not cogs in the great machine of industry they have distinct identities and are content in their diligence. In 1801 Trevithic invented a steam driven locomotive which ran on roads, and 1813 William Hedly built Puffing Billy for use in mines, followed a year later by George Stephenson’s engine. Internet. (Perkins). It depicts a moment in time that will change and be replaced by a new scene, a brief pause in the constant movement of life.
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