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calcareous sponge description

The skeleton of a sponge is formed from spicules which are made of silica (a glass-like material) or calcareous (calcium or calcium carbonate) materials, and spongin, a protein that supports the spicules. The first system based on the arrangement of the aquiferous system discriminates between homocoel (asconoid) and heterocoel (syconoid + leuconoid) grades of organization (Poléjaeff, 1883; Tuzet, 1973). With a size of 140–350 4–12 µm. (Photo by Sponges exploit an enzymatically catalyzed mineralization strategy to form CaCO3 from calcium and carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in sea water, which is a CO2-poor environment, especially at depths inhabited by sponges. (1900b) Description of a new species of calcareous sponge from Vancouver Island, B.C. The bicarbonate ion dissociates to form a hydrogen ion and a carbonate ion. Also used are various morphological characters such as shape, surface, texture, or color, but these characters vary with habitat conditions or season. Journal of Natural History 37 (2003): 1–47. The oldest probable calcareous sponge with affinities to modern subclass Calcaronea (Gravestockia pharetroniensis Reitner, 1992) was described from the lower Cambrain of South Australia. ——. Class Calcarea was elevated to phylum status ("Calcispongia," a term that was already used in the mid-nineteenth century) (Zrzavy, et al., 1998; Borchiellini, et al., 2001), but as yet without robust statistical support (e.g., Medina, et al., 2001). Urease is immobilized in a hydrogel during hydrogel formation. Associated organisms inhabiting the calcareous sponge Clathrina lutea in La Parguera Natural Reserve, Puerto Rico. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14, no. The fate of waste gametes, unspawned or unfertilized oocytes has been investigated in sponges in several cases. Some spicules entrapped in basal skeleton, randomly arranged. New York: Plenum, 2002. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, 1997. Skeleton consists solely of a layer of irregular triactines. Over the past two centuries, the monophyletic origin of, Dendy and Row, 1913; Hartman, 1958; Borojevic, 1979, Life in Triassic Oceans: Links Between Planktonic and Benthic Recovery and Radiation, JONATHAN L. PAYNE, BAS VAN DE SCHOOTBRUGGE, in, Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Hydroxymethyl-A-nor-sterols; oroidin derivatives, Peroxy sesterterpenes; pyrroloquinoline alkaloids. Many large "giant" triactines irregularly dispersed throughout the choanosome. Although sponges contribute only a minor amount of skeletal material to modern seas, they play a substantial role in producing limestone mud through bioerosion (see Section 5.5). In Reproductive biology of invertebrates. Triactines tangentially orientated, actines sometimes overlap. Calcareous sponges have a skeleton that is made of calcium carbonate (calcite), composed of free diactines, triactines, tetracines, and/or polyactine spicules, to which a solid basal calcitic skeleton may be added, with either cemented basal spicules or which is fully embedded in an enveloping calcareous cement. Leuconoid aquiferous system. Derived mostly from corals and calcified algae—to a lesser extent from foraminiferans and miscellaneous invertebrates such as calcareous sponges , mollusks, and echinoderms—it affects the development and ecology of many sponges, particularly in the sandy and … Asconoid grade of aquiferous system. "Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence." Furthermore, a number of cDNAs coding for Ser/Thr kinases has been isolated from G. cydonium and S. domuncula (two demo-sponges), as well as from the calcareous sponge Sycon raphanus (Kruse et al., 1997). Each specimen generally has 10 – 20 oscules on its uppermost surface, each 7 – 10 mm in diameter. Thumbnail description Marine sponges with calcareous skeletal elements (spicules). (2009) who showed that polyclonal antibodies to type IV collagen from rabbit also recognize a layer below the choanoderm in the demosponge H. caerulea. Physical Description Calcarea is the only class with asconoid and syconoid construction. Calcarea are regarded as one of four classes of the phylum Porifera (three extant [Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea] and one fossil [Archaeocyatha]), distinctive in possessing a spicule skeleton composed exclusively of calcium carbonate and being the only poriferan taxon realizing all three stages of development of the aquiferous system (asconoid-syconoid-leuconoid). Medina, M., A. G. Collins, J. D. Silberman, and M. L. Sogin. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Maximum size of about 12 in (30 cm) in height. One naked osculum on top of each tube. All calcisponge species have calcareous spicules, which can be associated with a massive calcareous skeleton in a small number of species (e.g. Size of the sponge "bush" is less than 4 in (10 cm). The study of Calcarea from the Norwegian coast started with collections made by Haeckel in 1869 on the Norwegian west coast, and later he reported 14 species from Norway (Haeckel, 1872). One type of triactines, with a more-or-less blunt tip, actines measuring 80–130 × 8–12µm. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Tectitethya is built like a regular sponge, conical to cylindrical, massive, usually with just one large osculum and many ostia partly arranged in groups. Elongated specimens with a few oscules with a naked "lip" on the ridge of the sponge body. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. However The oldest known scleractinian corals are of approximately the same age (Figure 3F) (Flügel 2002; Stanley 2003). However, the date of retrieval is often important. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983. Maria J. Uriz, Xavier Turon, in Advances in Marine Biology, 2012. Syconoid grade of aquiferous system. Globular specimens with one prominent osculum with a naked "lip." It is common in shallow reef sands but only the branching inhalant fistules are seen protruding from the bottom, whereas most of the sponge body is buried and was only discovered after extensive digging (Rützler, 1997; Rützler and Hooper, 2000). The unique morphological synapomorphy is monocrystalline calcareous spicules. Sagittal tetractines only make up skeleton. (C) Inhalant (ectosomal) fistules of Cervicornia cuspidifera protruding from sand near a lagoon patch reef; the diver is about to apply fluorescent dye to show water flow into the fistules and out through the surrounding sand bottom (picture width, 80 cm). Cryptic, mostly in caves and under overhangs, rarely in the open. Widely distributed in exposed and semi-shaded habitats, sometimes under overhangs. Leuconoid aquiferous system. Systema Porifera. "A chemical view on the most ancestral Metazoa—biomarker chemotaxonomy of hexactinellid sponges." New York: Plenum, 2002. The integrity of the epithelium is achieved not only by adhesion between cells but also by the support of the extracellular matrix below. Rapid diversification of the widely distributed halobiid bivalves (Halobia, Daonella, Aparimella, and Monotis) (Figure 3J) during the Middle to Late Triassic has been related to the dispersal of halobiid larvae in the plankton (McRoberts 2000), providing one potential connection between changing conditions in the upper water-column and benthic evolution. Calcareans are viviparous and have blastula larvae. Putative member of the cosmopolitan species group Clathrina coriacea. Using regenerating cubes from G. cydonium, it was found that at low to moderate pollution in the marine environment, an activation of protein kinase C occurs, whereas at sites of heavy pollution this change was not observed (Ugarkovic et al., 1990). In crevices and under overhangs of coral bommies, also abundant in illuminated reef habitats. Mapping of environmental distributions of taxa through the Triassic can help to determine whether genera preferentially originated in reef environments or, rather, originated in other environments and then migrated to reefs. In electron micrographs of homoscleromorph sponges, there is also a fine basal lamina below both the pinacoderm and choanoderm and antibodies to type IV collagen raised from that sponge recognize a layer that is beneath the epithelium (Boute et al., 1996). Improved temporal resolution of combined paleontological and geochemical proxy records should shed light on whether carbon cycle stabilization was associated with the cause of accelerated recovery or was instead a consequence. Chichester, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1993. The Caribbean staghorn sponge, C. cuspidifera (Lamarck) (previously as Spheciospongia) (Hadromerida), is a good example. tothesespecimensas Grantessa aff. Psammobiontic and detritus-adapted sponges. Middle Triassic trace fossil assemblages, on the other hand, exhibit higher diversity and significantly larger maximum burrow diameter than any Early Triassic assemblage (Zonneveld et al. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. In asconoid Calcarea, all internal cavities are lined with choanocytes (this organization is referred to as homocoel). (2 July 2003). Paired actines with a size of 220–350 µm, unpaired actines 210–370 µm, maximum thickness 15–40 µm. Volume 6 Part A: Asexual propagation and reproductive strategies, edited by K. G. Adiyodi, and R. G. Adiyodi. Dense irregular meshwork of mainly regular small triactines forms the choanosomal skeleton. OpenUrl CrossRef 12. 2004). Sequence alignments revealed a high sequence homology to the corresponding mammalian receptor. As settlement approaches, the larvae enter a short creeping stage (2-3 hours) that may be interrupted by Clathrina heronensis Wörheide & Hooper, 1999, Heron Island, at Wistari Channel, Great Barrier Reef. Although there is some ichnofossil evidence for gradual increase in size and behavioral diversity during the Early Triassic (Twitchett 1999; Pruss and Bottjer 2004), Griesbachian assemblages from middle to high latitudes (Zonneveld et al. Le Parco. Manuel, M., R. Borojevic, N. Boury-Esnault, and J. Vacelet. Description ofa New Deep-Water Calcareous Sponge (Porifera: Calcarea) from Northern California1 KIRK DUPLESSIS2 AND HENRY M. REISWIG2,3 ABSTRACT: A new species, Sycon escanabensis Duplessis & Reiswig, is de . Widely distributed, allegedly nearly cosmopolitan. Small subdermal cavities present (50–150 µm diameter). Sexual Dimorphism and Pair Spawning into a Sponge by the Filefish, Brachaluteres ulvarum, with a Description of the Eggs and Larvae Izumi Akagawa 1) , Youichi Tsukamoto 1) 2) , … Calcareous sponges returned to the rock record in the middle of the Anisian (Pelsonian) after their Early Triassic absence (Figure 3I) (Riedel and Senowbari-Daryan 1991; Flügel 2002). Sperm phagocytosis by the follicle cells in Asbestopluma occidentalis may also be directed to achieve an appropriate cell number in spermatic cysts as occurs in many other animals. Second type only found in the distal parts of the choanocyte chamber-tubes, with size of unpaired actines 150–290 × 4–15 µm, length paired actines 40–80 µm. Locomotion in these sponges Cytological features might not be sufficient for higher sponge taxonomy. These behaviors included locomotion and contraction. The earliest reefs may have formed in response to changes in some combination of seawater chemistry, carbonate platform geometry, and processes of sedimentation and sediment stabilization on platform margins rather than in response to animal and algal evolution. ——. Inarticulated choanoskeleton only supported by two (non-articulated) spicules, apical actines of sub-atrial sagittal tetractines and nail-shaped triactines (with totally reduced paired actines). Calcareous sponges are found globally in all oceans, from intertidal to the deep sea, but not the abyss. Hence, CA-catalyzed enzymatic mineralization evolved long before ALP-catalyzed mineralization in bone. Colour: The colour in life is dark sepia, almost black, when it grows at depths less than 2 m, at a depth of 10 m the colour is yellowish-grey. Nail-shaped triactines pointing with "unpaired" actines towards cortex, unpaired actines of the sub-atrial triactines do not extend to the cortex. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. They are common in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, however, rare in the Cenozoic. They are sexual and viviparous, with some species probably asexual by budding. Petrobiona masselina Vacelet & Levi, 1958, Mediterranean. Identification of "true" calcareous sponges in the fossil record is difficult because fossil remains often lack diagnostic spicules at all. 3.14). However, it has been shown that demosponges have a related form of this molecule called ‘spongin short chain collagen’ (SSCC), which shares very similar NC1a and NC1b domains with type IV collagen and possesses four of the six conserved cysteine molecules typical of type IV collagen (Aouacheria et al., 2006). Vacelet, J., R. Borojevic, N. Boury-Esnault, and M. Manuel. "New species of Calcaronea (Porifera: Calcarea) from cryptic habitats of the southern Great Barrier Reef (Heron Island and Wistari Reef, Capricorn-Bunker Group, Australia)." The calcium carbonate spicules are only megascleres, or large structural spicules. Ectosomal membrane (exopinacoderm) supported by perpendicularly arranged micro-diactines, restricted to the ectosomal (distal) part of cortex, 40–100 µm long, often finely spined. Geochemical proxy records of Middle Triassic oceans are extremely sparse. ." "Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA." It is named after Arthur Dendy, a prominent researcher of calcareous sponges. In Systema Porifera, edited by J. N. A. Hooper and R. W. M. Van Soest. Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. The sponge was identified using keys by Manuel et al. Three basic spicule types can be distinguished depending on the numbers of actines: diactines, triactines, and tetractines. The finding of type IV collagen in Sycon is all the more unusual since electron micrographs do not show a basement membrane structure in any calcareous sponge. Through the Ladinian, scleractinian corals remained less important as reef-builders than holdover Permian-type reef organisms, such as Tubiphytes (Figure 3G, H), calcisponges (Figure 3I), bryozoans, and calcareous algae (Figure 3E) (Stanley 1988; Flügel 2002). Life color white. Dense irregular meshwork of small regular triactines form choanoskeleton. This article is from Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, volume 5. Yoichi Nakao, Nobuhiro Fusetani, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, Sponge systematics are difficult mainly due to the simple bauplan as mentioned above; definitive (true) synapomorphies are yet to be established.9 Traditionally, spicules made of silicate (or calcium carbonate in the case of calcareous sponges) and proteins have been the most fundamental synapomorphy; size, type, shape, and combination of spicules, and their skeletal arrangements are currently used for taxonomical analysis. Chem. Schematic illustration of hydrogel mineralization with CaCO3 using urease. Currently only known from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Characteristics: The shape of a yellow sponge is spherical or speroidal.The surface is finely conulose. Leucettamines A and B, two antimicrobial lipids from the calcareous sponge Leucetta microraphis Fanhua Kong and D. John Faulkner Cite this: J. Org. They have large cutting, or incisor…, Ctenophora (tĬnŏf´ərə), a small phylum of exclusively marine, invertebrate animals, commonly known as comb jellies. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. Only one spicule type is present. No visible oscules nor distinct exhalant system. Grantiopsis heroni Wörheide & Hooper, 2003, northern side of Wistari Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Otherwise bushy, with multiple dichotomous or occasionally polychotomous branching digits. Sponge species may be most readily identified … Variation in spicule morphology is limited compared to other sponges (Manuel, 2006). ." Calcareous sponges of the genera Clathrina and Guancha (Calcinea, Calcarea, Porifera) of Norway (north-east Atlantic) with the description of five new species Article Full-text available The possession of a skeleton made of calcium carbonate spicules makes the Calcispongiaep unique with respect to all other sponges. Moreover, the cDNAs of α- and β-subunits of G-proteins, linking seven-transmembrane segment-receptors to their effector systems, have been cloned from G. cydonium (Seack et al., 1998). Apical actine, with a size of 65–120 µm, bent towards unpaired actine of basal triradiate system. With soft, compressible, and delicate texture, smooth surface. Lambe, L.M. "Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa." It is possible that these antibodies recognize a conserved 3D structure in the protein despite what would be considered to be a little conserved amino acid sequence. White color in life, soft texture, no surface ornamentation. Sand is incorporated throughout the buried part of the body and stabilized around it so that the sponges serve as an early stage in the generation of hard-bottom benthos communities, such as patch reefs. ——. Thumbnail description Marine sponges with calcareous skeletal elements (spicules) Photo: A calcareous sponge in a cryptic reef environment in waters near the Little Cayman Islands, at a depth of 82 ft (25 m). Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Tufts, with a diameter of 100–150 µm, form minute tessellation of external sponge surface, located over radially arranged choanocyte chambers. Haplosyllis spongicola . Overall, the population descriptors pointed to this species as a good opportunistic colonizer but highly sensitive to stochastic events affecting recruitment and thus with low-medium predicted impact on native communities. Atlas of Sponges. (A) Tectitethya crypta inhabits shallow sandy lagoon bottoms and lives covered and permeated by sand (picture width, 30 cm). Large regular triactines also found here. Werner E.G. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. The significant lag between the return of reefs on platform margins (early Anisian) and the return of reefs constructed by skeletal metazoans and algae (Ladinian and Carnian) indicates some decoupling of reef formation from the evolution of algae and metazoans. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In subspherical specimens apical oscules, 600–800 µm in diameter. Volumetrically significant early marine cements in Middle Triassic reefs (Flügel 2002) suggest continued high alkalinity in seawater, although platform geometry and depositional rate probably also played important roles governing reef accumulation and cementation (Seeling et al. During metamorphosis, the larval flagellated cells differentiate into choanocytes. Two less conspicuous sponges in the same habitat are the mostly buried Oceanapia peltata (Schmidt) (Haplosclerida) and Tectitethya crypta (de Laubenfels) (Hadromerida). "Porifera." Actines of basal triradiate system 30–80 µm long, longer apical actine 130–330 µm long. Addition of CA to mineralization solutions containing CO2 has accelerated CaCO3 deposition on sponge spicules (Muller et al., 2013). "Order Murrayonida Vacelet, 1981." New York: Plenum, 2002. The species is annual (Frotscher and Uriz, 2008) so that the building of the yearly populations relied exclusively on recruits resulting from those larvae released from the previous cohort. 2005). Sometimes small subcortical cavities, with diameter of 50–100 µm. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the reaction of CO2 with H2O to form bicarbonate, which subsequently reacts with calcium ions to form CaCO3 (Lee et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2014). This species is deeply embedded and anchored in sand and also regularly covered by sediment. Depending on the location in the sponge body, epithelia have some sort of basal support provided by collagen, and most also have an upper cuticle. The calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna, originally observed along the Brazilian coast (Atlantic Ocean), is the only allochthonous invasive species of Porifera reported in the Mediterranean Sea. It was renamed Arturia in 2017 because the name Arthuria was already assigned to a genus of molluscs. . A schematic illustration of enzymatic mineralization of a hydrogel with CaCO3 by urease incorporation is shown in Figure 9.3. No differentiation or zonation of skeleton, appears to be uniform throughout cormus (sponge body). Typically, calcareous sponges are small, measuring less than 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in height, and drab in colour. The population genetic features allowed the authors to predict either high genetic variation in populations across time, if allopatric recruitment occurs, or low genetic differentiation across years if the yearly cohorts result from philopatric larvae. Ectosomal skeleton (forming the external surface) consists of characteristic "tufts" of bundled free actines of t-shaped sagittal triactines and two types of microdiactines. These somatic cells are involved in both elimination of presumably aberrant spermatozoa during spermatogenesis and removal of unspawned sperm. In Systema Porifera, edited by J. N. A. Hooper and R. W. M. Van Soest. Yellow greenish to dark greenish brown color in life, one large terminal osculum always present, mostly with a "lip." 2.18). Alexander V. Ereskovsky, in Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition), 2018. Derived mostly from corals and calcified algae—to a lesser extent from foraminiferans and miscellaneous invertebrates such as, ). CA is proposed to be responsible for mineralization of, Advances in Sponge Science: Physiology, Chemical and Microbial Diversity, Biotechnology, ). Accelerated biotic recovery within marine benthic communities began early in the Middle Triassic. "Class Calcarea Bowerbank, 1864." Five (including Haliclona caerulea Hechtel and T. crypta) made no distinction and took up all size fractions occurring in the surrounding sand bottom (Cerrano et al., 2004). Recently, several molecular studies have given weak support to sponge paraphyly, with either the hexactinellids or the calcareous sponges, or Type IV collagen is necessary for basal lamina formation since its globular heads link to form a mesh that is attached to the cell surface by laminins. These results also showed heterozygote deficit and allele instability in the populations over the 3 years, which are consistent with a recent establishment of these populations in the study area. (2014) immobilized urease in hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl acrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate or poly(2-ethyl oxazoline). Calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea) include about 675 accepted extant species (Van Soest et al., 2011), which are exclusively marine. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: 1 (2001): 171–179. Porifera:The Sponges 7 Most sponge larvae spend only a brief time in the plankton, usually less than three days, before exhibiting settlement behavior. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/596429. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. © 2019 | All rights reserved. In the traditional taxonomy, the arrangement of the spicules and the organization of the aquiferous system are important characters (Manuel, 2006). 2 (1999): 859–891. Urease catalyzes the reaction of urea with water to form ammonia, an ammonium ion, and a bicarbonate ion. Although most of the diagnostic characters cannot be polarized, it is possible to assume that the embryological development of Calcaroneap represents a synapomorphy of this clade: the internally flagellated blastula (stomoblastula) turns inside out to give the amphiblastula larva by a process called eversion (Duboscq and Tuzet, 1935; Manuel, 2006; Fig. In Systema Porifera, edited by J. N. A. Hooper and R. W. M. Van Soest. Typically, calcareous sponges are small, measuring less than 10 … "Calcarea from the Great Barrier Reef. (October 16, 2020). They allow sponges to organize their aquiferous system in … Distal parts of tubes mostly longer than ramified parts. Another gene coding for a further inducible sponge protein, a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase gene, was cloned from G. cydonium (Schäcke et al., 1994). Volume IV: Fertilization, Development, and Parental Care (Part A), edited by K. G. Adiyodi, and R. G. Adiyodi. The atrial skeleton is supported by sagittal tetractines with their curved free actines pointing towards and into the atrium. It is now established that many of these forms actually belong to several groups of demosponges because of the possession of primary siliceous spicules, and only few to Calcarea (pharetronids and some sphinctozoans). More recently, several authors have suggested from ribosomal DNA sequence data that Calcarea might be more closely related to the phyla Ctenophora/Cnidaria than to the other two extant classes of Porifera, rendering phylum Porifera paraphyletic. . Calcareous sponges range from minute size an inch or less (few millimeters), to about a maximum of about 12 in (30 cm) (Pericharax heteroraphis). Here, we report on whole‐sponge behaviors of the calcareous asconoid sponge Leucosolenia botryoides, as revealed by time‐lapse videos. Their longer, unpaired actines contributes to ectosomal tessellation, with brush-like tufts of microdiactines arranged around them. Recently, type IV collagen that corresponds well to alpha and beta chains has also been found in the calcareous sponge Sycon coactum and another homoscleromorph, Corticium candelabrum (Leys and Riesgo, 2011). Calcareous sponges are mostly small and inconspicious; they occur in a variety of forms, as single tubes, sometimes vase shaped, a mass of small tubes ("cormus"), a bushy arrangement of single tubes, or sometimes massive without any apparent symmetry. "Order Clathrinida Hartman, 1958." Number of classes and families: 1 class (Calcarea); 2 subclasses (Calcinea, Calcaronea); 5 orders (2 in Calcinea: Clathrinida, Murrayonida; 3 in Calcaronea: Leucosoleniida, Lithonida, Baeriida); 22 families; 75 genera; about 500 described species. 16 Oct. 2020 . Chemotaxonomical markers for sponge taxa, Klaus Rützler, in Advances in Marine Biology, 2012. We can assume from these observations that an apical nucleus linked to the flagellum is the plesiomorphic state in Calcispongiaep, and consequently, a basal nucleus with no relation to the flagellum is a synapomorphy for Calcineap (Manuel, 2006). Calcareous sponges live in diverse habitats. Spicules are sagittal triactines (with actines 25–200 6–40 µm), tuning-fork (diapason) triactines (basal actines 30–70 5–8.5 µm, apical actines 20–50 4–7 µm), two size categories of tetractines (pugioles) (apical actines 40–130 22–28 µm and 16–40 5.5–8.5 µm, actines of basal triradiate system 8–100 10–28 µm and 30–70 5.5–8.5 µm), spined microdiactines 30–60 2–3 µm. Wörheide, G., and J. N. A. Hooper. Massive, bulbous, rarely clavate growth form. Borchiellini, C., M. Manuel, E. Alivon, N. Boury-Esnault, J. Vacelet, and Y. The sponge mGluR may be useful for monitoring neurotoxins in the marine environment; this is of great importance since neurotoxins produced during algae blooms may act on glutamate receptors, which may also cause serious disorders in humans. The record of bioturbation in Middle Triassic sediments also indicates accelerated recovery of benthic organisms. In Calcaroneap, the nucleus keeps the apical position, whereas in Calcineap, it becomes basal. and Austin and Ott (1987); a detailed description of the soft tissues of the sponge is given elsewhere (Eerkes-Medrano and Leys, submitted) and a specimen has been ——. The use of CA to mineralize hydrogels with CaCO3 remains unexplored. They occur mostly in shallow waters; only a few species are known from the deep sea (for an overview see, e.g. Both a Ca2+-independent and a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C gene has been sequenced from the sponge G. cydonium (Kruse et al., 1996). Smooth, soft, tesselated texture. The assignment of many records of so-called "Pharetronida," calcareous sponges with a rigid calcareous skeleton, to subclasses Calcaronea or Calcinea is difficult if they do not possess characteristic spicules to allow precise assignment.

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