tonto apache language
Over them a thatching of bundles of big bluestem grass or bear grass is tied, shingle style, with yucca strings. Soledad, Nell David S (2009). An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children. The period began, no later than 1861, with the arrival of American settlers on Yavapai and Tonto land. The smallest social unit was the matrilocal and matrilineal family living in one wickiup (kowa or gowa); each wife lived with her children in a separate wickiup. Many Apache ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits. The Jicarilla used acorns, chokecherries, juniper berries, mesquite beans, pinyon nuts, prickly pear fruit, and yucca fruit, as well as many different kinds of other fruits, acorns, greens, nuts, and seed grasses. These terms also refer to that parent's same-sex sibling: -ʼnííh "mother or maternal aunt (mother's sister)", -kaʼéé "father or paternal uncle (father's brother)". In 1875, the Tonto and Yavapai were forcibly moved to the San Carlos Apache Reservation. These two reservations were combined in 1937, and the people formed the federally recognized Camp Verde Yavapai-Apache Nation. The Wipukepa tribal areas in the San Francisco Peaks, along the Upper Verde River, Oak Creek Canyon and Fossil Creek overlapped with those of the Northern Tonto Apache. Reuse, Willem J., de. They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. The notion of "tribe" in Apache cultures is very weakly developed; essentially it was only a recognition "that one owed a modicum of hospitality to those of the same speech, dress, and customs. The office was not hereditary, and the position was often filled by members of different extended families. Only a few hundred ever returned to their lands. In general, the recently arrived Spanish colonists, who settled in villages, and Apache bands developed a pattern of interaction over a few centuries. The list below is based on Foster and McCollough (2001), Opler (1983b, 1983c, 2001), and de Reuse (1983). Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande. Hoijer, Harry. In 1910, the US government set aside 40 acres (161,874 m2) as the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, and in the following decade added 248 acres (1,003,620 m2) in two parcels, which became the Middle Verde Indian Reservation. Western Apache has a number of subdialects: Cibeque, Northern and Southern Tonto… Krauss, Michael E. (1973). Culturally, the term "Western Apache" is often used to refer to the four modern Apache Indian tribes of Arizona: the Tonto, San Carlos, White Mountain, and Yavapai Apache tribes. The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: industriousness, generosity, impartiality, forbearance, conscientiousness, and eloquence in language. A competing theory[who?]  The Chiricahua-type system is used by the Chiricahua, Mescalero, and Western Apache. The Tonto Apache lived alongside the Wipukepa (“People from the Foot of the Red Rock”) and Kewevkapaya, two of the four subgroups of the Yavapai of central and western Arizona. #30 Payson, Arizona 85541 Reservation #30 Payson, AZ Completed by: Arizona Rural Policy Institute Center for Business Outreach W.A. Another type of housing is the wickiup, an 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) frame of wood held together with yucca fibers and covered in brush usually in the Apache groups in the highlands. The Western Apache raided over an area from the Colorado River in western Arizona, to the Zuni (Nashtizhé – 'black-dyed eyebrows') and Hopi (Tseka kiné ` – 'people who dwell in stone houses') in the north, to the later Mexican states of Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Durango in the far south. Twenty years later, some of the Tonto Tribe returned to the Payson area. , Another story is of a hidden ball game, where good and evil animals decide whether or not the world should be forever dark. The term is also used for their dialect, one of the three dialects of the Western Apache language (a Southern Athabaskan language).The Chiricahua living to the south called them Ben-et-dine or binii?e'dine' (“brainless people”, “people without minds”, i.e. He includes Chicame (the earlier term for Hispanized Chicano or New Mexicans of Spanish/Hispanic and Apache descent) among them as having definite Apache connections or names which the Spanish associated with the Apache. The reservation is adjacent to the Town of Payson, and has a population of 140 people, with 110 of them being enrolled Tribal members. Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache, Naisha, Naʼishandine) are headquartered in Southwest Oklahoma. It was not uncommon for a band to be given permission to leave for a short period of time. The Apache quickly acquired horses, improving their mobility for quick raids on settlements. The reservation is located adjacent to the town of Payson, in northwestern Gila County, approximately 95 miles northeast of Phoenix and 100 miles southeast of Flagstaff. The term Apache refers to six major Apache-speaking groups: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Plains Apache, and Western Apache. The Tonto Apache territory stretched from the San Francisco Peaks, East Verde River and Oak Creek Canyon along the Verde River into the Mazatzal Mountains and to the Salt River in the SW and the Tonto Basin in the SE, extending eastwards towards the Little Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona. The most important plant food used by the Chiricahua was the Century plant (also known as mescal or agave). The Sex Offender Registry website is maintained by the Tonto Apache Tribal Police Department. In late fall, juniper berries and pinyon nuts were gathered. There are different words for an opposite-sex sibling's child: -daʼá̱á̱ "opposite-sex sibling's daughter", -daʼ "opposite-sex sibling's son". Franke College of Business Northern Arizona University Jicarilla primarily live in Northern New Mexico, Southern Colorado, and the Texas Panhandle. Likewise, there are two words for a parent's child according to sex: -yáchʼeʼ "daughter", -gheʼ "son". The tepee type was just made of brush. Seymour, Deni J. In warm, dry weather much of the outer roofing is stripped off. But, contractors who worked with the United States government to supply the reservations were disappointed, and petitioned to have the reservation revoked. Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them. , The Athabaskan-speaking group probably moved into areas that were concurrently occupied or recently abandoned by other cultures. The Western Apache system differs slightly from the other two systems, and it has some similarities to the Navajo system. Later Spanish sovereignty over the area disrupted trade between the Pueblo and the diverging Apache and Navajo groups. Mescaleros primarily live in Eastern New Mexico. Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5,000 US troops forced Geronimo's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4, 1886, at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona. In addition, "Enemy Navajo" often served as scouts against the Tonto Apache for the hostile tribes and Europeans. Many books were written on the stories of hunting and trapping during the late 19th century. For example, the Lipan once fought against the Mescalero. Other items include: salt obtained from caves and honey. Both raided and traded with each other. Additional information can be requested by mailing a request to the Tonto Apache Tribal Police Department. At the end of June and beginning of July, saguaro, prickly pear, and cholla fruits were gathered. The Tonto Apache Tribe was federally recognized by Congressional Act in 1972. Local groups were headed by a chief, a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. The highest organizational unit was the group or band, which are usually composed of several smaller local groups; it was organized mostly for military purposes and for common defense. Some kindred families lived together as an extended family (so-called gotah) in a rancheria together. (Edited by Louis Kraft). Most of them spoke both languages, and the headman of each band usually had two names, one from each tradition. Information on Apache subsistence are in Basso (1983: 467–470), Foster & McCollough (2001: 928–929), Opler (1936b: 205–210; 1941: 316–336, 354–375; 1983b: 412–413; 1983c: 431–432; 2001: 945–947), and Tiller (1983: 441–442). When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. The women also cultivated watermelons, pumpkins, corn, later grain, etc. . Fresh deer blood was drunk for good health. The peoples raided and warred together against enemy tribes such as the Tohono O'odham and the Akimel O'odham. The low tone is not marked. Recent advances have been made in the regard in the far southern portion of the American Southwest. Reservations were often badly managed, and bands that had no kinship relationships were forced to live together. The Tonto Apache Tribe is located adjacent to the town of Payson (originally named Te-go-suk, Place of the Yellow Water), in northwestern Gila County approximately 95 miles northeast of Phoenix and 100 miles southeast of Flagstaff, Arizona. (1971). Apache language assistance is provided at all Apache voting precincts. Brugge, David M. (1983). When we settled down, we used the wickiup; when we were moving around a great deal, we used this other kind ..., Recent research has documented the archaeological remains of Chiricahua Apache wickiups as found on protohistoric and at historical sites, such as Canon de los Embudos where C.S. -chú can mean the child of either your own daughter or your sibling's daughter.). Apache languages can be divided into 2 groups: 1) Navajo-Apache and 2) Kiowa Apache. Substantial numbers of the people and a wide range were recorded by the Spanish in the 16th century. The total population of the Tonto Apache Reservation is approximately 140 of which 110 are enrolled tribal … Tiller, Veronica E. (1983). Two different words are used for each parent according to sex: -mááʼ "mother", -taa "father". Influenced by the Plains Indians, Western Apaches wore animal hide decorated with seed beads for clothing. Most commonly, Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. The chief's leadership was only as strong as he was evaluated to be—no group member was ever obliged to follow the chief. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. Opler, Morris E. (1936b). To further confusion, the Europeans referred to the Tolkepaya, the southwestern group of Yavapai, and the Hualapai (who belonged to the Upland Yuma Peoples) as Yuma Apache or Mohave Apache. It consists of 85 acres that was carved out of the Tonto National Forest in 1972. (1960). These natives are called Querechos. Western Apache include Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, White Mountain and San Carlos groups. The Apache language is called Nnēē biyáti’ or Ndēē biyáti’ in Western Apache. The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people. Although the following activities were not distinguished by Europeans or Euro-Americans, Apache tribes made clear distinctions between raiding (for profit) and war. ", The Apache and Navajo tribal groups of the North American Southwest speak related languages of the Athabaskan language family. "The position of the Apachean languages in the Athapaskan stock", in K. H. Basso & M. E. Opler (Eds.). Schroeder, Albert H. (1974b). (2009b) "Evaluating Eyewitness Accounts of Native Peoples along the Coronado Trail from the International Border to Cibola". Tonto Apache Nation. They do not cultivate the land, but eat raw meat and drink the blood of the cattle they kill. The Rio Verde Reserve was established in 1871 for the Tonto and Yavapai Indians. Other Athabaskan speakers, perhaps including the Southern Athabaskan, adapted many of their neighbors' technology and practices in their own cultures.  A less likely origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon".  Anthropological evidence suggests that the Apache and Navajo peoples lived in these same northern locales before migrating to the Southwest sometime between AD 1200 and 1500. Tonto is one of the major dialects of the Western Apache language. The population of Fort McDowell consists mostly of the Guwevka'ba:ya Yavapai as well as other Yavapai groups.. (1940). They requested permission to live on the grounds of the original Camp Verde Reservation.  They left behind a more austere set of tools and material goods than other Southwestern cultures. They also used horsemint (used as condiment), juniper berries, Lamb's-quarters leaves, locust flowers, locust pods, mesquite pods, mint (used as condiment), mulberries, pennyroyal (used as condiment), pigweed seeds (used for flatbread), pine inner bark (used as a sweetener), pinyon pine nuts, prickly pear fruit (dethorned and roasted), purslane leaves, raspberries, sage (used as condiment), screwbeans, sedge tubers, shepherd's purse leaves, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tumbleweed seeds (used for flatbread), vetch pods, walnuts, western white pine nuts, western yellow pine nuts, white evening primrose fruit, wild celery (used as condiment), wild onion (used as condiment), wild pea pods, wild potatoes, and wood sorrel leaves. The Rio Verde Reserve was established in 1871 for the Tonto and Yavapai Indians. Opler, Morris E. (2001). Schroeder, Albert H. (1963). The five Apache languages are Apachean languages, which in turn belong to the Athabaskan branch of the Eyak-Athabaskan language family. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Greenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups (based on his informants' views of dialect and cultural differences): White Mountain, Cibecue, San Carlos, North Tonto, and South Tonto. John Upton Terrell classifies the Apache into western and eastern groups. The Tonto Apache were divided into the following bands: Northern Tonto (inhabited the upper reaches of the Verde River and ranged north toward the San Francisco Mountains north of Flagstaff, because they shared hunting and gathering grounds with Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya bands of the Yavapai they formed bilingual mixed-tribal Northern Tonto Apache-Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya bands with common headmen, both the band/local group or its headman usually had two names, one was Apache (Southern Athabascan) the other Yavapai (Upland Yuman).