plant sources of resins
Paul Henderson, technology manager at Reichhold, says ENVIROLITE’s bio-source is proprietary, but its bio-content ranges from 12 to 35 percent. Plastic made from petroleum or plants like corn is among the cheapest material for things like packaging, but smaller-scale manufacturers are developing even more natural alternatives. Far left and far right: Fragrant, strong-scented oleoresins from the torchwood family (Burseraceae), including frankincense ( Boswellia carteri ) and myrrh ( Commiphora abyssinica ), native trees (or large shrubs) of the Middle East desert region. Amber can be found in deposits over many parts of the globe, generally in river deltas or sedimentary soils where water had washed plants downstream. It is also known as tears of Chios, being traditionally produced on the island Chios, and, like other natural resins, is produced in "tears" or droplets. Turpentine was also used for astringents, stimulants, diuretics and laxatives, as well as a flea repellant. of resins from various plant sources and beeswax. Table 1: Ethylene glycol and 1,3-propanediol from bio-sources are now available in production amounts, but other chemicals for UPR manufacture, from bio-sources, are still in development. Like the mideastern resins, frankincense and myrrh, elephant tree resin was also used for incense by native Americans and early settlers. Resins are stable over a wide range of temperatures. “The general public, or the end-user, desires to have a green product, or what they perceive as a green product,” he says, “but, it’s rare that they are actually willing to pay for it.” Nonetheless, McAlvin reports that AOC has sold more than 20 million lb (9,070 metric tonnes) of EcoTek resin. Despite ADM and DuPont Tate & Lyle’s advances with PG and 1,3-propanediol (respectively), there are still several UPR monomers available in production quantities only from petrochemical sources (see Table 1, at right). “It’s driven a great deal of interest in environmental awareness.” In fact, one Ashland customer, Campion Boats (Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada), publicly announced in 2010 its commitment to use Envirez UPRs for all its new boat construction, a decision expected to eliminate 100,000 lb (45.4 metric tonnes) of CO2 per annum from the environment. They reduce dependence on petrochemicals, and their price volatility allows manufacturers who use them to promote a greener product. Polyester resinsare formed from the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. Resins are most stable and can be readily regenerated. It was used then as laundry soap but now as a variety of unrelated industrial products, such as adhesives, printing inks, and chewing gum. An ant preserved in amber. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. Further, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently listed styrene as a possible human carcinogen, a decision that, if not rescinded, is likely to force suppliers to seek a short-term alternative. Both the Maya and the Aztec used resin from the copal tree as incense. 1400 Independence Ave., SW Another commercially important resin is kauri gum, obtained from the kauri tree of New Zealand (Howes, 1949). This is the point, however, where the technological hurdle comes in. The resin produced by most plants is a viscous liquid, composed mainly of terpenes, with lesser components of dissolved non-volatile solids, which make resin thick and sticky. Washington DC 20250-1103, Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices, Native Plant Material Accomplishment Reports, Fading Gold: The Decline of Aspen in the West, Wildflowers, Part of the Pagentry of Fall Colors, Tall Forb Community of the Intermountain West, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants, do not play a role in the fundamental processes of the plant, and. Factors for this softness include well-supplied markets, sluggish demand, lower global feedstock prices, and the effects of the coronavirus disrupting global production networks. The most problematic monomer, however, appears to be the common diluent styrene, a key component in thermoset crosslinking. Bio-resins have substantial appeal. Resins can be produced through the bark of a tree, the flowers of an herb, or the buds of a shrub. The uses of natural gums and resins in food, medicines and in varnishes or as protective coatings go back to very early times. Since the pine forests of the Southern United States were exhausted, and resin collection by tapping trees was getting too expensive, manufacturers started using mechanical means of refining wood by-products to collect resin. He admits, however, that, in general, the company’s bio-based monomers make Envirez resins more expensive than their all-petrochemical cousins. Amber has been known to preserve insects and other small organisms that were imbedded in the resin before it hardened. Unsaturated polyester in this solid-surface sink is from AOC’s EcoTek line of bio-resins. Collection of pine resin for distallation to turpentine ("cup and gutter system"). This is particularly true of customers that manufacture composites for the construction market, where the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program encourages use of recycled or bio-based materials. (3) Plant sources for amber deposits. Rosin was discarded as a waste product until after the Civil War. Like Ashland’s Envirez, EcoTek is designed as a drop-in replacement for traditional UPRs and offers comparable mechanicals. The remaining plant structures, including their resin, fossilized and created amber. The greening of the global economy, carbon footprint sensitivity, increased emphasis on sustainable systems, and the evolution of product lifecycle analysis have led many thermoset resin manufacturers away from the oil-and-gas wellhead and back to the farm. Other candidates include sugar cane, sugar beets, potatoes, lignocellulose, whey and algae. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia(alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. At one point, the southern United States was the world’s supplier of resin. Praesto AC is an example of a purpose-designed resin, specified and evaluated … As you can imagine, it tasted like resin, which is said to be pleasing. Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Eventually, the trade routes collapsed because of better shipping routes, the loss of incense trees to agriculture, the demand for wood, and a decrease of rainfall in the region. Turpentine was traditionally used in paints, but is now used in the chemical industry as a base to produce solvents, cleaners, fragrances, dry cleaning, and insecticides. Balsam, cedar, and fir needle incense. Amber was worn to ward off evil, including disease, since prehistoric times. Photo by Teresa Prendusi. Some resins also contain a high proportion of resin acids. Most natural resins are exuded from trees, especially pines and firs. The Baltic people wore amber jewelry to avoid headaches and throat problems, and in Mexico, amber carved in the shape of body parts was worn for the health of that particular body part. Trade routes began from the southern coast of Arabia to the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia regions, beginning c. 1000 BCE and ending shortly before 500 CE. In 2011, farmers planted 92.3 million acres of corn and 75 million acres of soybeans. It is not mixed with any other solvents. All of this is important because PG, which historically has been derived only from petrochemical sources, is a major ingredient of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). Other applications include aerospace, where Corsi says the company sees opportunities in aircraft repair. This means that a UPR with bio-based PG still relies on oil for its other ingredients and, thus, is only green-ish. Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. The trade of amber can be traced back to the Stone Age (3500 BCE) while the history of resin can be traced to just before 1700 BCE during the Bronze Age. A variety of CIPP products are enabling the rehabilitation, rather than excavation and replacement, of underground pipe for wastewater and drinking water. If the drivers keep driving, it appears to be just a matter of time before the hurdles fall. “Building and construction has a great driver in the LEED program,” says Moffitt. “Looking ahead, more acid streams based on bio-sources will be developed soon,” contends Ashland’s Moffitt. Rubber rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa). AOC’s McAlvin agrees that the LEED program, via the construction market, is a major driver for the use of bio-resins. The principal European turpentines are derived from the cluster pine (P. pinaster) and the Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), while the main sources of turpentine in the United States are the longleaf pine (P. palustris) and the slash pine (P. caribaea). Here, Envirez has been applied mostly to solid surface products for kitchen and bath use (see photo, at right). It is often considered a gemstone although it is not a mineral. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: • On heating, they soften and finally melt. Conifer species, clockwise from top-left: western red cedar, Douglas fir, spruce, and lodgepole pine. Spruce resin softens when it is chewed and turns the mouth a reddish color. Oven-cured, vacuum-bagged prepregs show promise in production primary structures. Latex can contain resin, making the plant a resinous plant. Traditionally, incense was derived from plant resins, commonly from frankincense and myrrh trees. Many of the major thermoset resin manufacturers serving the composites industry now produce at least one type of UPR with PG derived from bio-based sources. A bio-resin is a resin that derives some or all of its constituent monomers from biological sources. Amber is fossilized plant resin. EcoPoxy’s annual capacity is 20 million lb (9,070 metric tonnes), and Corsi believes there is no reason to think that won’t increase over the next few years. But other trees also produce resin, such as alder, aspen, birch, chestnut, poplar, sweetgum, and willow. Ion Exchange resins are well suited for removal of these impurities for the following reasons: 1. Amber can be many colors, including green, gold, brown, red, black, and even bluish. Vincent Corsi, president, says the company is “trying to make folks aware of our product and its capabilities.” He says the UV-stable, odorless, no-VOC formula can be filament wound, is suitable for tooling use and has mechanical properties “in range with commonly used epoxies.” The company, Corsi says, is working on a high-temperature version and already has placed some product in marine applications. Corn and soybeans are appealing primarily because they are available in abundance. Turpentine oil is generally produced in countries that have vast tracts of pine trees. Because of the demand and use of pines for resin, the first conservation legislation in America was passed in Massachusetts, requiring permits to cut or de-bark pines. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes. The British Empire used resin for its navy, originally buying it from the Baltic region. The smooth pale bark of tabonuco exudes a white resin that was used medicinally by early settlers and for making candles and incense. Many sources of resin According to the USDA Forest Service, a wide variety of plants produce resin. Tree resin is the hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, generally of coniferous trees like cedars, Douglas-firs, cypresses, pines, hemlocks etc. Source: AOC LLC. US Forest Service, FM-RM-VE 4. 3. And, as noted by John McAlvin, R&D manager at resins manufacturer AOC Resins (Collierville, Tenn.), “The source of PG is irrelevant.” That is, PG from soybeans and corn is no different than PG from oil and gas. Natural lacquer is simply liquid resin. tree resins from centuries are valued for their chemical worth, and also for valuable uses such as producing adhesives, varnishes, and … For now. Photo courtesy U.S. Forest Service. Many cultures valued amber as religiously significant, due to its warm tones and ability to preserve life such as insects and plant parts. All sources contacted for this article noted that there is currently no bio-based alternative to styrene. Amber is a fossil resin. 1 Conifer trees are famous for it, including various species of cedar, fir, juniper, larch, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew. Tabonuco (Dacroydes excelsa). Part 2: Applying CT scan data analysis and visualization to composites, Composites activity expansion quickens in October, Composite Bonding & Repair Benefits and Solutions, Revisiting the Fundamentals of Light Resin Transfer Molding (LRTM), How Digital Cutting Technology Reduces Costs and Improves Flexibility. The drivers are (1) increased demand from consumers and end-users for a sustainable and environmentally friendly resin, and (2) new refinery technology that can produce plant-based bio-chemicals for key resin monomers. Technology. The endangered Puerto Rican parrot feeds on tabonuco seeds and the tree is rarely cut today. Humans have used resins and amber for thousands of years. Soybeans, like corn, have become a source for bio-resins feedstocks. This restricts the market for a bio-based UPR to customers whose preference for the green aspects of the resin outweigh the additional cost. Photo by Mila Zinkova. INTRODUCTION Definition: Solid or semisolid, amorphous products derived from living natural sources and most are plants products, with the exception of shellac, an insect secretion. Trees of the Dipterocarpaceae produce a resin called dammar in commerce. 2. All four are typical for a young market like this one and revolve around cost, technology and customer preference. Ship builders have used the liquid form of resin for thousands of years. Derived from phenolic acids found in plant sources, biorenewable epoxy resins, [patent pending] are naturally non-toxic. The most well known and highly used amber comes from conifers, mostly pines; however, these same trees are not in existence today. They tend to be low cost. They are very flexible and have excellent resistance to heat, chemicals, and flame. Tar water, resin steeped in water, used to be recommended by doctors for illnesses such as smallpox, ulcers and syphilis. Along these lines, the big news in the bio-resins market during the past few years was the development by agriculture supercompany Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) (ADM, Decatur, Ill.) of propylene glycol (PG) derived from plant-based by-products. There are many resinous plants all around the world. Resin is tapped from the tree and allowed to harden. Corn (above) and soybeans (see next photo) are the most common crops in the U.S. and provide feedstocks for some monomers used to manufacture unsaturated polyester, replacing monomers traditionally derived from petrochemicals. After the Revolutionary War, Britain went back to the Baltic for its resin stores while the new United States stored its own resin for pitch and tar. What do you think of when someone says resin? It is also used in artificial flavors such as lemon, peppermint, and nutmeg, as well as cosmetics. CLASSIFICATION Based on occurrence, it is classified into five types. Specific components are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene. The production of resin is very common in nature, but only a few plant families can be considered of commercial importance to resin collectors. Varnish is plant resin combined with a solvent and drying oil (also derived from plants) to make it easier to apply to surfaces. Out-of-autoclave prepregs: Hype or revolution? Resin was also used to make turpentine and rosin. They are, for example the top two crops each year in the U.S. Indeed, resin feedstock derived from plants, just a novelty a few years ago when CT last explored this market, is now a full-fledged product line, and one that is apparently here to stay. Amber artifacts have been found in China (from Myanmar deposits) and Central America. This book is the definitive text on plant resins and represents the summation of over forty years of research on the topic by the author. But we continue to look at alternatives.”. Although many resinous plants are not native to North America, some have established themselves here and are even considered weeds. Researchers also found that these resins are capable of triggered degradation, meaning it will biodegrade in a landfill or in natural environments where waste may collect. Campion Boats was among the first manufacturers to commit to use of bio-resins when it decided to use Ashland Performance Materials’ (Columbus, Ohio) Envirez unsaturated polyester in all new-boat construction. Asafoetida is the dried aromatic gum-resin exuded from the living rhizome, rootstock or taproot of varied plant species of genus Ferula. 4. Resins 1. #adhesives #biomaterials #bulkmoldingcompound. Further, they have a more favorable lifecycle profile than petrochemical-based materials. The best known amber deposit is from the Baltic Sea in north-central and Eastern Europe. It is commonly used for wood finishing and other crafts to provide protection and a glossy finish.