maxamet steel toughness
The European Powder Metallurgy Association, 2004. Grinding and finishing is also difficult, even in the annealed condition because of the high vanadium content. Also, a person new to steel terms doesn’t know what having “fine grains” means in a knife. The Ultimate Guide to Choosing the Best Knife Steel for Top Blades – TrekWarrior.com. There is no reason I know of to expect better sharpness with a high temper. However, Rex 121 is at an even higher level of insanity in terms of wear resistance and would be expected to be another notch higher. You can get secondary hardening without V or even without Mo/W but the most dramatic secondary hardening is seen with Mo/W. Probably. Early PM high speed steels were simply taking existing compositions and producing PM versions of them, such as M2, M42, and T15. $203.05. The patent for S90V was filed in 1995 . The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole™ for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. Never used, let alone tested, put in print, so someone  Nehrenberg, Alvin E., Thoni V. Philip, and Steven Gary. An ambidextrous, tip-up wire silhouette pocket clip and screw-together handle construction make the folder user friendly with several and carry options. He defines wear resistance in terms of both abrasive wear and adhesive wear but it’s not clear to me how that is useful to the novice that needs an article to introduce different topics. No, toughness has nothing to do with a blade easily warping. I’d like an opinion on the graphs there. Selon nous, l'acier 8Cr13MoV est la meilleure option lorsque vous avez un budget serré. Spyderco Manix 2 Maxamet - Best Lightweight EDC Knife ? 1.4034 stainless steel is essentially a 420HC made in Germany but is given the highest score for toughness of “7” a full 2 points higher than 420HC, and higher than the high toughness steels 5160 and 1050. With steel element explanations and steel type descriptions that are straight up wrong, plagiarism from Cold Steel (that was assigned to the wrong steel), and plagiarized ratings I can’t recommend this article at all. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole™ for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. Larrin, I will be criticizing their descriptions of steels and steel properties as well as the ratings that they provide. FK Member Posts: 427 Joined: Fri Sep 24, 2004 4:33 pm Location: CT USA. To normalize the numbers to what's readily available on the market, I averaged the top five steels (average is 381) and ran the numbers again. 440C gets a higher rating than 440A for corrosion resistance despite the fact that 440A has better corrosion resistance because less chromium is tied up in carbides in 440A. Tool steel grades used in cutlery : A, D, O, M, T, S, L, W. See also AISI Tool Steel Grades. The ZDP has almost no vanadium, while the Maxamet has 6%. You can read more about the development of these steels in this article. Become a patron and gain access to awesome rewards including early access to articles or a Knife Steel Nerds mug! 33% Score of Average of Top 5: 126; closest steel is 154CM at 124. That seems like enough examples of poor ratings of steel. Very useful article and surprisingly accurate CATRA in most cases mentioned.  Mackay, William BF, and Robert O. Carson. The move to M2 was necessitated by tungsten shortages in WWII and the Korean War but it was also discovered that M2 had higher toughness, wear resistance, and potential hardness than T1. Amer. With all of these incomprehensible designations like 20CV, M390, 204P, XHP, S30V, etc. The most obvious strange thing in the ratings is that 420HC is listed as having better corrosion resistance than 420 for some reason: This article has a much less pretentious title and was written by Dan Jackson. However, that's still lower than Crucible CPM REX 121 steel and many other alloys with comparable performance. St-Etienne. Required fields are marked *. I’m particularly interested in the articles where they are confident enough in their knowledge of steel to give ratings to different properties of steels. Another interesting and informative article, thanks for the good read. Erroneous “OPINIONS “ on a knife steel they have This is because dancing on the limit of a property means that relatively tight control is necessary, or you are in danger of under- or over-shooting any of the given elements thereby missing the desired properties. After all, they are designed to be heat treated to at least 67 Rc. For toughness testing I austenitized Nitro-V at 1850, 1900, and 1950°F for 15 minutes, followed by plate quenching and cryo, and then tempered twice at 350°F for two hours each time. We only need a few more for 150 supporters! because now I don’t know which steel to choose! ASP60 combined 6.5% vanadium along with high carbon and cobalt for high wear resistance and hardness.  http://www.phase-trans.msm.cam.ac.uk/2004/Tempered.Martensite/tempered.martensite.html. Maxamet is a high carbide volume steel, ~22% Les aciers les plus populaires de cette catégorie sont les suivants : CPM S35VN, VG10, CPM S30V, Böhler M390, Böhler N690 et bien plus. The only edge retention value I have for any of these steels is from Maxamet. Your email address will not be published. Specifications. There are a few reasons: Update 6/20/2019: While I haven’t made a steel rating article, I did write an article about how to choose steels, and provided recommendations for the best steels within certain categories. Here are links to learn about a few of them: Edge Retention of Knife Steels Part 1 and Part 2. 534, pp. Looks like I need to update my article. Compare. Therefore, the super hard high speed steels can offer performance closer to cemented carbide in combination with higher toughness to reduce the possibility of tool chipping or breakage. Everything is exactly as youâ€™d expect from this model, with the addition of a maxamet blade, which has surprised me in its toughness and edge retention This expression of the Para 3 combines all the defining qualities of this best-in-class folding knife design with the extreme edge retention and toughness of Maxamet blade steel. Many of the descriptions of the steel types are questionable as well, such as, “D2 – An American made, but less expensive version of CPM S30V.”. Guide to the Best Knife Steel – KnifeInformer.com.  Automotive Industries 105 (1951): 158. How can a knife consumer determine that by looking at the steel composition?  https://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsCPM%20CruWear2015.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/Data%20Sheet%204V.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsA2v12010.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/ds10Vv1%202010.pdf,  https://www.crucible.com/eselector/prodbyapp/highspeed/rexm42.html,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/ds76rev1%202010.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsT15v1%202010.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsM4v1%202010.pdf,  https://www.hitachi-metals.co.jp/e/products/auto/ml/pdf/hsts_b.pdf. I’ll do that when I update the article. ... Carpenter produces this powder steel. So I don’t know if the number is supposed to be based on maximum achievable hardness or typical hardness in production knives. They achieved the high hardness by combining high carbon content with high cobalt additions. Trans Tech Publications, 2007. In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing. Spyderco was one of the only companies to successfully machine, heat treat and grind this advanced alloy for use in high-performance knife blades.  Hamaker, Jr John C., James R. Handyside, and Daniel H. Yates. However, he also says that, “Many people report that they are able to get knives using steels that contain vanadium such as CPM S30V sharper than they can non-Vanadium steels such as ATS-34.” I’m not sure I’ve heard anyone report that before, as the hard vanadium carbides typically make sharpening more difficult. Interesting. And here is an article where I took micrographs of 42 knife steels which has the most up-to-date toughness charts developed for this website. Here is an article about how chipping of edges happens to understand the mechanisms that occur and so how we evaluate different steels based on those mechanisms. This Para 3 features all the characteristics of the best-selling standard model, plus the supercharged edge holding and toughness of a Maxamet blade. Those carbide contents are supported by micrographs I took of both of those steels, where you can see that Rex 121 has both more carbide and larger carbides than Maxamet. I agree. Nothing about 420HC makes it less tough or corrosion resistant than 440C. This blade steel exhibits good toughness, but it does not meet the level of M390. The Native 5 features a patterned FRN handle with two separate finger choils. Your email address will not be published. I have written several articles now on the history of tool steels and high speed steels. Compare T1 and T4 in the image below, for example, where T4 is identical to T1 but with 5% cobalt. So I did a couple google searches, opened all of the articles in the first 2 or 3 pages, and kept each that had ratings for blade steels. Can you tell me what the rationale is for relating sharpness (their word) to secondary hardening? Perhaps in the future Si will be explored more. 1 year ago. The metallurgy of these types of steels is also interesting. His ratings appear to also be taken from an older chart from Buck Knives which has only a few steels. Deductive reasoning, almost like SCIENCE. 26 Sep. 1939. 11 Jan. 1938. If you do a google search (like I have) for “knife steel” you come up with a lot of articles that describe, rate, and/or rank various popular knife steels. There are different steels for different purposes but I don’t like to think of steels in those terms. I tried explaining heat treating of steel to the furnace operators at a steel company where I worked. In high speed steels Si behaves a bit differently than in the somewhat lower alloy steels in that article, however. This expression of the Para 3 combines all the defining qualities of this best-in-class folding knife design with the extreme edge retention and toughness of Maxamet blade steel. Same old , same old ! Thanks! He says that vanadium helps produce a fine grain structure which is true enough in small doses. Except for “initial sharpness” which is not a steel property. 440A gets a very average corrosion resistance rating of 5.5 despite its very good corrosion resistance. 33% Score (below this is a steel that scores a zero): 187 (33% of Maxamet's 563); closest is 3V at 198. Now for the actual ratings which I assume is what most people are looking for when they click on one of these articles. I even used gradients for my bars. I’ve never thought that steel looked like grains of sand. These predicted values would of course need to be experimentally validated. The Chromium likely is the element that drives the ZDP into being a stainless steel. D2 is given a hardness rating of 62 Rc despite 60 Rc being much more common. They can’t. I don’t have a full article comparing the toughness of different steels to each other. I thought about including charts from the manufacturers because there is reason to question them in some cases. However, the high vanadium additions (>1%) in many knife steels are made for wear resistance and that is not explained in the article. However, knifemakers and knife companies also wanted a more balanced stainless steel as the high wear resistance of S90V can make processing of the steel and sharpening for the end customer more difficult. Not make charts where people look at them without understanding anything behind it. Thanks! And when cutting materials with a higher cutting speed requiring better hot hardness. Even where I criticize the articles that does not necessarily mean that I think the author is clueless, or that none of the articles are worth reading, or that they don’t regularly call their mothers like good boys should. I previously wrote about the effects of cobalt in this article. Maxamet is a high carbide volume steel, ~22%. I’m planning to make a gyuto out of HSS, but can’t decide between the selection that’s available. This steel is particularly well suited to applications where strength and impact resistance are valued above all other considerations and will produce blades of nearly legendary toughness.”. It also incorporates an index-finger choil that allows a forward grip for enhanced control. I don’t want to have ratings with no accompanying explanation for how the scores were determined. M390 gets a higher score than Elmax for toughness even though Elmax is tougher. Prioritize toughness for rigid prints. “High-speed steel article.” U.S. Patent 6,057,045, issued May 2, 2000. B., and C. O. Burgess. Knife Blade Materials – by KnifeCenter.com. The improvements in steelmaking combined with the improved understanding of high speed steel alloy design led to a combination of high cobalt and optimized carbon content to maximize hardness. on chipping and rolling of edges. Cutting performance, toughness and edge retention are off the charts. He gives a higher edge retention score to 14C28N than 13C26 even though the steels are very similar other than corrosion resistance. I narrowed down the list to 5 articles that I will be commenting on. Maybe blade geometry? Elemental mapping of a small region of polished Maxamet showing that several types of nearly spherical carbides in the range of 1-2 microns in diameter occupy about 1/4 of the volume of the steel.  Gornik, Christian, and Jochen Perko. I have rated their articles based on my own experiences, steel datasheets, and how I feel this morning. here is an article where I took micrographs of 42 knife steels, https://www.bladehq.com/cat–Best-Knife-Steel-Guide–3368. He has another good example of how these can be misleading with the description of vanadium as promoting “fine grains.” That is true; small vanadium additions are made to some steels to help “pin” grain boundaries and reduce grain growth. Alloy is high on Cobalt and Vanadium. On the other hand, the Maxamet has only 4.75% Chromium, while the ZDP has 20%. They are especially critical in survival situations. “Ultra hard high speed steel.” U.S. Patent 3,259,489, issued July 5, 1966. Predicted CATRA values (non-experimental), Grinding, Finishing, Sharpening, Corrosion Resistance, Cost. Powder metallurgy steel was first produced on a commercial scale by Crucible Steel at the end of 1970. I'd never do this in the real world. Maxamet is hard and tough enough to meet the demands of rolling and shaping hot steel. Grindability was an important consideration because of the difficulty of grinding such hard steels.  Kinzel, A. but does link to an article that does (boo! Vanadium carbides can become very large with conventional steel production which limits grindability and toughness. Institute of Mechanical Engineers 100 (1932): 257-263. “The goal with this specific model, and a number of USA-made designs, is to offer a grand ‘bang-for-the buck,’” Glesser explains. The higher hardness is desirable for machining of high hardness materials like high strength steel and titanium alloys, where the greater hardness difference improves performance.
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