ovid heroides latin
They are among the few classical depictions of heterosexual love from the female perspective and, although their apparent uniformity of plot has been interpreted as encouraging a tragic female stereotype, each letter gives a unique and unprecedented perspective into its respective story at a crucial point in time. The exact dating of the Heroides, as with the overall chronology of the Ovidian corpus, remains a matter of debate. A translation in rhymed couplets by Daryl Hine appeared in 1991. The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. (1981) "The Authenticity of the Letter of Sappho to Phaon". Liverpool University Press. (1898). Accipe, Dardanide, moriturae carmen Elissae; quae legis a nobis ultima verba legi. “Heroides” (“The Heroines”), also known as “Epistulae Heroidum” (“Letters of Heroines”) or simply “Epistulae”, is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems (poems in the form of letters) by the Roman lyric poet Ovid, published between 5 BCE and 8 CE. He also provides (p. 6, n. 9) a cautionary note, with references, on the use of modern terminology such as, Like many other aspects of Ovidian studies, what is known about the publication of multiple editions of the. Verg. Recommending parts of his poetic output as suitable reading material to his assumed audience of Roman women, Ovid wrote of his Heroides: "vel tibi composita cantetur Epistola voce: | ignotum hoc aliis ille novavit opus" (Ars Amatoria 3.345–6: "Or let an Epistle be sung out by you in practiced voice: unknown to others, he [sc. , Classics scholar W. M. Spackman argues the Heroides influenced the development of the European novel: of Helen's reply to Paris, Spackman writes, "its mere 268 lines contain in embryo everything that has, since, developed into the novel of dissected motivations that is one of our glories, from La Princesse de Clèves, Manon Lescaut and Les Liaisons Dangereuses to Stendhal and Proust".. Dating of the poems is difficult, but the composition of the single “Heroides” probably represent some of Ovid‘s earliest poetic efforts, possibly between about 25 and 16 BCE. (ei mihi, praeceptis urgeor ipse meis!) Might say, and so too †that woman of Lesbos, beloved of the Aonian lyre.†. [Translated and reprinted from, "Future Reflexive: Two Modes of Allusion and the. 1) Ovid $5.49. Amores. Letter XX: Acontius to Cydippe: Cydippe, a lady of high rank and beauty from the isle of Delos, has solemnly sworn to marry the young, poor Acontius, but has been promised in the meantime by her father to someone else, only avoiding that marriage thus far due to a fever. " In spite of various interpretations of Propertius 4.3, consensus nevertheless concedes to Ovid the lion's share of the credit in the thorough exploration of what was then a highly innovative poetic form. (1998) Heroides I w/ Notes & Comm. If it is right to complain, my lover and lord, I complain. Later he did considerable public service there, and otherwise devoted himself to poetry and to society. The double poems were probably composed later, and the collection as a whole was not published until until somewhere between 5 BCE and 8 CE. Acontius writes to Cydippe, claiming that the fever was sent by Diana as a punishment of the breach of the vow Cydippe had made to him in Diana’s temple.Letter XXI: Cydippe to Acontius: In response, Cydippe claims that Acontius had ensnared her by artifice, although she gradually softens to a compliance and ends with a wish that their marriage may be consummated without delay. Liber I: Liber II: Liber III: Liber IV: Liber V: Liber VI: Liber VII: Liber VIII: Liber IX – 17 A.D.) METAMORPHOSES.  Discussion of these issues has been a focus, even if tangentially, of many treatments of the Heroides in recent memory. (1999) "First Among Women: Ovid, and the Traditions of ‘Exemplary' Catalogue", in, Kennedy, D. F. (1984) "The Epistolary Mode and the First of Ovid's. Written thoughout in elegant elegiac couplets, “The Heroides” were some of Ovid‘s most popular works among his assumed primary audience of Roman women, as well as being highly influential with many later poets. The Heroides consist of 15 poems that have mythological females address their heroic lovers.  Regardless of absolute dating, the evidence nonetheless suggests that the single Heroides represent some of Ovid's earliest poetic efforts. A further set of six poems, widely known as the Double Heroides and numbered 16 to 21 in modern scholarly editions, follows these individual letters and presents three separate exchanges of paired epistles: one each from a heroic lover to his absent beloved and from the heroine in return. Ovid survives in his poetry (his tragedy Medea is lost), the most important of which, in probable order of composition, are: Amores (c. 20 b.c.e. Letter XIII: Laodamia to Protesilaus: Laodamia, wife of the Greek general Protesilaus, endeavours to dissuade him from engaging in the Trojan War and particularly warns him against being the first Greek to set foot on Trojan ground lest he suffer the prophecies of an oracle. Ovid: Heroides I Introduction and Latin Text, with Greek Translation by Maximus Planudes edited by Arthur Palmer and Duncan F. Kennedy. The single Heroides are written from the viewpoints of the following heroines (and heroes). One passage in the second book of Ovid's Amores (Am.) Heroides. Purser (ed.)] Perhaps the most successful of these were the Quatre Epistres d'Ovide (c. 1500) by André de La Vigne [fr], a friend and colleague of Saint-Gelais. ‘vir’, ‘virago’, ‘virgo’, ‘virtus’, ‘vis’. BRISEIS TO ACHILLES. About Selections from Ovid Heroides. While this situation is far from ideal, we hope it will allow those who could not normally travel to Carlisle to participate. Pygmalion: and Related Readings. These epistolary poems are written in Latin elegiac couplets (demonstrated here and in depth here), which is a type of meter used in poetry. e.g. My right hand holds the pen, a drawn blade the other holds, and the paper lies unrolled in my lap. Hippolytique parens Hippolytusque legant, And your tearful tale too, forsaken Phyllis—, And Hippolytus's sire, and Hippolytus himself may read—, Might say, and so too †that woman of Lesbos, beloved of the Aonian lyre.†, The reader is to understand that the letters, Knox (1995) 6. Books XVI to XXI (Classical Association of New England), Arena, A. As an example following these lines, for some time scholars debated over whether this passage from the Amores—corroborating, as it does, only the existence of Her. Ovid] originated this sort of composition"). Other studies, eschewing direct engagement with this issue in favour of highlighting the more ingenious elements—and thereby demonstrating the high value—of individual poems in the collection, have essentially subsumed the authenticity debate, implicating it through a tacit equation of high literary quality with Ovidian authorship. Ovid is today best known for his grand epic, Metamorphoses, and elegiac works like the Ars Amatoria and Heroides. 4. Ovid arrived at his place of exile in the spring of 9 ce. Author: Paul Murgatroyd Publisher: Taylor & Francis ISBN: 1351758942 Size: 46.47 MB Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi View: 812 Get Books This volume offers up-to-date translations of all 21 epistles of Ovid’s Heroides. The words you read come from stolen Briseis, an alien who has learned some Greek. (1995) Review of Hintermeier (1993), "Continuities", 9–28. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.02.0068:text=Ep. Hypsipyle of Lemnos, born of the people of Bacchus. With Ovid's word as the only viable evidence on the matter, the existence of a second edition of the Amores is widely regarded as potentially questionable (cf. (ed.) Sic ubi fata vocant, udis abiectus in herbis This your Penelope sends to you, too-slow Ulysses; I, your hostess, Demophoon—I, your Phyllis of Rhodope—. Or write what's rendered in the words of Penelope to her Ulysses, The Heroides take the form of letters addressed by famous mythological characters to their partners expressing their emotions at being separated from them, pleas for their return, and allusions to … Letter XIV: Hypermestra to Lynceus: Hypermnestra, one of the fifty daughters of. In his solitude and depression, Ovid turned again to poetry, now of a more personal and introspective sort. An Aeolid, who has no health herself, sends it to an Aeolid. Mainly because I just really dislike when Latin poetry gets translated into rhyming verse. This edition is intended to provide students of Latin literature with guidance in the interpretation of these poems.  Stephen Hinds argues, however, that this list constitutes only a poetic catalogue, in which there was no need for Ovid to have enumerated every individual epistle. Ovid $14.19 - $33.11. The Heroides were long held in low esteem by literary scholars but, like other works by Ovid, were re-evaluated more positively in the late 20th century. Holzberg, N. (1997) "Playing with his Life: Ovid's 'Autobiographical' References", This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 14:42. While Saint-Gelais' translation does not do full justice to the original, it introduced many non-Latin readers to Ovid's fictional letters and inspired many of them to compose their own Heroidean-style epistles. Not through your fault was I claimed by Agamemnon but you failed me also, on. tres sumus; hoc illi praetulit auctor opus. Dickinson Latin Workshop: Ovid’s Heroides July 16–20, 2020.  This assertion has been widely persuasive, and the tendency amongst scholarly readings of the later 1990s and following has been towards careful and insightful literary explication of individual letters, either proceeding under the assumption of, or with an eye towards proving, Ovidian authorship. Ovid claimed to have created an entirely new literary genre of fictional epistolary poems. The poems (or letters) are presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology to their heroic lovers who have in … Aen. And Hippolytus's sire, and Hippolytus himself may read— It just seems so hokey, and I feel like the need to work everything so it rhymes warps the translation a lot. For fuller discussion see D. S. Raven, Latin Metre: an Introduction (Cambridge, 1965). Letter XVIII: Leander to Hero: Leander, who lives across the Hellespont Sea from his illicit lover Hero and regularly swims across to meet her, complains that a storm is preventing him from joining her, but vows to brave even the bad storm rather than be deprived of her company for much longer. has been adduced especially often in this context: quod licet, aut artes teneri profitemur Amoris Letter XVI: Paris to Helen: The Trojan prince Paris, deeply enamoured of the beautiful Helen of Sparta, informs her of his passion and insinuates himself into her good graces, eventually resorting to promises that he will make her his wife if she will flee with him to Troy.Letter XVII: Helen to Paris: In response, Helen at first rejects Paris’ proposals with a counterfeit modesty, before gradually opening herself more plainly and ultimately showing herself quite willing to comply with his scheme.Letter XVIII: Leander to Hero: Leander, who lives across the Hellespont Sea from his illicit lover Hero and regularly swims across to meet her, complains that a storm is preventing him from joining her, but vows to brave even the bad storm rather than be deprived of her company for much longer.Letter XIX: Hero to Leander: In response, Hero reiterates the constancy of her love for Leander, but counsels him not to venture out until the sea is calm.Letter XX: Acontius to Cydippe: Cydippe, a lady of high rank and beauty from the isle of Delos, has solemnly sworn to marry the young, poor Acontius, but has been promised in the meantime by her father to someone else, only avoiding that marriage thus far due to a fever. Qui modo Nasonis fueramus quinque libelli, She, who sends this, wishes loving greetings to go to whom it's sent: Hypermestra sends this letter to her one cousin of many, When these letters, from my eager hand, are examined, Showerman, G. (ed. Ovid's Heroides, a collection of twenty-one epistles in elegiac verse, consists of two groups, the first comprising fourteen poems addressed by heroines of mythology to their absent lovers or husbands. Rahn, H. (1963) "Ovids elegische Epistel", Smith, R. A. What you're reading—this letter came from your ravished Briseis, What well-being she herself will lack unless you give it her. Some critics have argued that the passage in, Hinds (1993) 30 f., a suggestion cited by scholars since almost as a matter of reflex. The full extent of Ovid's originality in this matter has been a point of scholarly contention: E. J. Kenney, for instance, notes that "novavit is ambiguous: either 'invented' or 'renewed', cunningly obscuring without explicitly disclaiming O[vid]'s debt to Propertius' Arethusa (4.3) for the original idea. 2.18, as well as Ars am. They may not have the great emotional range or the often sharp political irony of Ovid‘s “Metamorphoses”, but they do have keen portraiture and a matchless rhetorical virtuosity. The Heroides is a collection of 21 poems in elegiac couplets. The quotations highlighted are the opening couplets of each poem, by which each would have been identified in medieval manuscripts of the collection: The Heroides were popularized by the Loire valley poet Baudri of Bourgueil in the late eleventh century, and Héloïse used them as models in her famous letters to Peter Abelard. Tomis was a semi-Hellenized port exposed to periodic attacks by surrounding peoples. aut quod Penelopes verbis reddatur Ulixi, Charles Simmons, The Metamorphoses of Ovid, Books XIII and XIV, 13.507 Cross-references to this page (2): P. Ovidius Naso, Art of Love, Remedy of Love, Art of Beauty, Court of Love, History of Love, Amours , A Note on the Translations Ovid: The Heroides A complete English translation Home; Download; Heroides I-VII. Dido Aeneae. The Introduction also includes a general account of Ovid's career and the place of the Heroides in the development of Augustan poetry. See esp. Though even now you may take little pleasure in reading us, Questions of authenticity, however, have often inhibited the literary appreciation of these poems. I'm beset by my own teachings!) A few of these lines are blurred by falling tears, tears which are as heavy as my words. 1–2, 4–7, 10–11, and very possibly of 12, 13, and 15—could be cited fairly as evidence for the inauthenticity of at least the letters of Briseis (3), Hermione (8), Deianira (9), and Hypermnestra (14), if not also those of Medea (12), Laodamia (13), and Sappho (15). versa est in cineres sospite Troia viro. with an English translation) and Goold, G. P. (2nd edition revised) (1986), Roebuck, L. T. sanguine Tlepolemus Lyciam tepefecerat hastam; 20 Tlepolemi leto cura novata mea est. sive Menoetiaden falsis cecidisse sub armis, flebam successu posse carere dolos. early] phase of O[vid]'s career," a position which has not advanced significantly since that comment was made. Lingenberg (2003) regards the single letters as a coherently structured work by one author, published some years after Ovid's death at latest and believed to be authentic Ovid already by. Since the Amores may well be among the first Latin poems a student encounters, it may be helpful to provide a brief introduction to the rules of Latin prosody (the quantity of individual syllables) and to the reading aloud of elegiac couplets. Hinds, S. (1993) "Medea in Ovid: Scenes from the Life of an Intertextual Heroine", ___. Heroides – Ovid – Ancient Rome – Classical Literature. Yet he also wrote a Medea, now unfortunately lost. (Alas! With two books swept away your pain will be lighter. Barchiesi, A. Later he did considerable public service there, and otherwise devoted himself to poetry and to society. (2003) "Chain(ed) Mail: Hypermestra and the Dual Readership of. In the third book of his Ars Amatoria, Ovid argues that in writing these fictional epistolary poems in the personae of famous heroines, rather than from a first-person perspective, he created an entirely new literary genre. Famous at first, he offended the emperor Augustus by his Ars Amatoria, and was banished because of this work and some other reason unknown to us, and dwelt in the cold and primitive town of Tomis on the Black Sea. Other sources include Seneca the Elder and Quintilian. The Dickinson Summer Latin Workshop will move online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath. Casali, S. (1992) "Enone, Apollo pastore, e l'amore immedicabile: giochi ovidiani su di un topos elegiaco", ___. The paired letters of the Double Heroides are not outlined here: see the relevant section of that article for the double epistles (16–21). the introduction), and (2002), Kennedy (2002), and Lingenberg (2003). Ovid. (1998) "Echtheitskritik: Ovidian and Non-Ovidian, Heinze, T. (1991–93) "The Authenticity of Ovid, Palmer, A. (1994) "Fantasy, Myth, and Love Letters: Text and Tale in Ovid's, Steinmetz, P. (1987) "Die literarische Form der, Stroh, W. (1991) "Heroides Ovidianae cur epistolas scribant", in G. Papponetti (ed.). Books and high society were lacking; little Latin was spoken; and the climate was severe. Even now, left to the wild beasts, she might live, cruel Theseus. Tarrant, R. J. Kennedy (1984) and Hinds (1999). Whether this is true or not, the “Heroides” certainly owe much of their heritage to the founders of Latin love elegy – Gallus, Propertius and Tibullus – as evidenced by their metre and their subject matter. Ovid, Heroides 3. Dardanian, receive this song of dying Elissa: Hermione speaks to one lately her cousin and husband, A letter, that shares her feelings, sent to Alcides. P. OVIDIVS NASO (43 B.C. Orpheus in the Underworld (Penguin 60s) The Heroides (The Heroines), or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid in Latin elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them. As Peter E. Knox notes, "[t]here is no consensus about the relative chronology of this [sc. The only collection of Heroides attested by O[vid] therefore antedates at least the second edition of the Amores (c. 2 BC), and probably the first (c. 16 BC) ..." On this view, the most probable date of composition for at least the majority of the collection of single Heroides ranges between c. 25 and 16 BC, if indeed their eventual publication predated that of the assumed first edition of the Amores in that latter year. For a fuller overview of the authenticity debate than can be offered here, see, among others, Lachmann (1876), Palmer (1898), Courtney (1965) and (1998), Anderson (1973), Reeve (1973), Jacobson (1974), Tarrant (1981), Knox (1986), (1995, esp. XVI – XXI) where the heroic lovers address their loves and receive their replies. Ovid's Heroides by itself deserves four stars, and one off for this translation. I Penelope to Ulysses II Phyllis to Demophoon III Briseis to Achilles IV Phaedra to Hippolytus V Oenone to Paris VI Hypsipyle to Jason VII Dido to Aeneas Heroides VIII-XV. scribimus et lacrimas, Phylli relicta, tuas. Strategies of tension (Ovid, Heroides 4) - Volume 41 - Sergio Casali. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BCE 17 CE), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and law at Rome. Acontius writes to Cydippe, claiming that the fever was sent by Diana as a punishment of the breach of the vow Cydippe had made to him in Diana’s temple. Heroides (Heroines) I n this collection of elegiac couplets, Ovid represents letters from famous women in mythology, writing to their husbands and lovers about the things they experienced. Ovid’s first work, the Amores (The Loves), had an immediate success and was followed, in rapid succession, by the Epistolae Heroidum, or Heroides (Epistles of the Heroines), the Medicamina faciei (“Cosmetics”; Eng. the arguments of, e.g. Yvonne LeBlanc, "Queen Anne in the Lonely, Tear-Soaked Bed of Penelope: Rewriting the, "Review of: Ovid's Heroides: Select Epistles", "15 Heroines: The Labyrinth review – defiant women rise up from the myths | Theatre | The Guardian", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heroides&oldid=988491981, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. trans. ut iam nulla tibi nos sit legisse uoluptas, Information about his biography is drawn primarily from his poetry, especially Tristia 4.10, which gives a lengthy autobiographical account of his life. Letter I: Penelope to Ulysses: Penelope, wife of Ulysses (the Greek hero of the Trojan War, known as Odysseus in Greek), ignorant of the cause of her husband’s absence after the fall of Troy and solicitous for his return, chides him for his long stay, and urges him to come home to his wife and family, as he now has no reasonable excuse for his absence.Letter II: Phyllis to Demophoon: Phyllis, the daughter of Lycurgus of Thrace, complains to Demophoon, the son of King Theseus of Athens (whom she had met after his return from the Trojan War) of his breach of faith in not returning to marry her as he had promised, threatening to bring a violent death on herself if he continues to neglect her.Letter III: Briseis to Achilles: Briseis (who had been carried off by the Greek hero Achilles during the Trojan War, but then stolen away by the jealous Agamemnon) blames Achilles for his over-violent reaction and entreats him to accept Agamemnon’s peace offers and to take up arms against the Trojans again.Letter IV: Phaedra to Hippolytus: Theseus’ wife Phaedra confesses her love to Hippolytus (Theseus’ son by the Amazon Hyppolita) in Theseus’ absence, and tries to inspire him with a mutual tenderness, despite their near relationship.Letter V: Oenone to Paris: The nymph Oenone writes to Paris (son of Priam and Hecuba and a prince of Troy, although brought up secretly by shepherds), complaining that he has unfairly abandoned her, and warning him against the wiles of the beautiful but fickle Helen.Letter VI: Hypsipyle to Jason: Hypsipyle, queen of the isle of Lemnos, complains that Jason had abandoned her, pregnant, during his quest for the Golden Fleece, and warns him against his new mistress, the enchantress Medea.Letter VII: Dido to Aeneas: Queen Dido of Carthage, who has been seized with a violent passion for Aeneas (the Greek hero of the Trojan War), tries to divert him from his intention to leave Carthage in order to pursue his destiny in Italy, and threatens to put an end to her own life if he should refuse her.Letter VIII: Hermione to Orestes: Hermione, promised by her father Menelaus to Achilles’ son Pyrrhus, admonishes her true love Orestes, to whom she was previously betrothed, advising him that she might easily be recovered from the hands of Pyrrhus.Letter IX: Deianeira to Hercules: Deianeira upbraids her unfaithful husband Hercules for his unmanly weakness in pursuing Iole, and tries to awaken in him a sense of his past glory, but, belatedly hearing of the fatal effects of the poisoned shirt she had sent him in her anger, she exclaims against her own rashness and threatens to end her own life.Letter X: Ariadne to Theseus: Ariadne, who had fled with Theseus after the slaying of the Minotaur, accuses him of perfidy and inhumanity after he left her on the isle of Naxos in preference for her sister, Phaedra, and tries to move him to compassion by a mournful representation of her misery.Letter XI: Canace to Macareus: Canace, daughter of Aeolus (the god of the winds) pathetically represents her case to her lover and brother Macareus, whose son she had borne, inveighing against her father’s cruel command that she take her own life as punishment for her immorality.Letter XII: Medea to Jason: The enchantress Medea, who aided Jason in his quest for the Golden Fleece and fled with him, charges him with ingratitude and perfidy after he transfers his love to Creusa of Corinth, and threatens a speedy revenge unless he restores her to her former place in his affections.Letter XIII: Laodamia to Protesilaus: Laodamia, wife of the Greek general Protesilaus, endeavours to dissuade him from engaging in the Trojan War and particularly warns him against being the first Greek to set foot on Trojan ground lest he suffer the prophecies of an oracle.Letter XIV: Hypermestra to Lynceus: Hypermnestra, one of the fifty daughters of Danaus (and the only one who had spared her husband Lynceus from Danaus’ treachery), advises her husband to flee back to his father, Aegyptus, and begs him to come to her assistance before Danaus has her killed for her disobedience.Letter XV: Sappho to Phaon: The Greek poet Sappho, resolved to throw herself off a cliff when her lover Phaon abandons her, expresses her distress and misery and tries to soothe him to softness and a mutual feeling. “Heroides” (“The Heroines”), also known as “Epistulae Heroidum” (“Letters of Heroines”) or simply “Epistulae”, is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems (poems in the form of letters) by the Roman lyric poet Ovid, published between 5 BCE and 8 CE. Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BCE –17 CE ), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and law at Rome. Portrait of Penelope, extracted from Ovid’s Heroides , c. 1500  Exact dating is hindered not only by a lack of evidence, but by the fact that much of what is known at all comes from Ovid's own poetry. (ed.) Are now three; their author preferred his work this way over that.  Joseph Farrell identifies three distinct issues of importance to the collection in this regard: (1) individual interpolations within single poems, (2) the authorship of entire poems by a possible Ovidian impersonator, and (3) the relation of the Double Heroides to the singles, coupled with the authenticity of that secondary collection. Ovid talks more about his own life than most other Roman poets. It was the inspiration for 15 monologues starring 15 separate actors, by 15 playwrights at the Jermyn Street Theatre in 2020.. 3.345–6 and Epistulae ex Ponto 4.16.13–14, would then be interpolations introduced to establish the imitations as authentic Ovid). P. OVIDI NASONIS EPISTVLAE HEROIDVM VII. This trend is visible especially in the most recent monographs on the Heroides. Briseis to Achilles. A further set of six poems, widely known as the Double Heroidesand numbered 16 to 21 in modern scholarly editions, follows these individual letters and prese… Letter XXI: Cydippe to Acontius: In response, Cydippe claims that Acontius had ensnared her by artifice, although she gradually softens to a compliance and ends with a wish that their marriage may be consummated without delay. Rosati, G. (1991) "Protesilao, Paride, e l'amante elegiaco: un modello omerico in Ovidio", Vessey, D. W. T. (1976) "Humor and Humanity in Ovid's, Viarre, S. (1987) "Des poèmes d'Homère aux.
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