sweet chestnut bark
1.5k. These long-lived giants, with their prickly-husks and deeply grooved bark, give us our classic Christmas nut. , The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, Media related to Castanea sativa at Wikimedia Commons, The examples and perspective in this article. Tannins, when taken in controlled amounts, can relieve you from Diarrhea. , The species is widely distributed throughout Europe, where in 2004 C. sativa was grown on 2.25 million hectares of forest, of which 1.78 million hectares were mainly cultivated for wood and 0.43 million hectares for fruit production. The leaves also contain tannin. The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood. After water treatment, the sweet chestnuts are stored in a controlled environment with high carbon dioxide concentrations. Chinese chestnuts bloom earlier than American chestnuts. Roman soldiers were given chestnut porridge before going into battle. Transform your home into a woodland wonderland this Christmas with our easy ideas for festive, foraged home decor. Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a sweet chestnut tree. , Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:, The field management is dependent on the cultivation system. Most sweet chestnut is consumed in processed form, which has an impact on the nutrient composition. Chestnut blight has recently arrived in the UK, which causes bark cankers and can lead to dieback and death. They can develop vast girths which can reach up to 2m in diameter. Credit: Wendy Johnson / Alamy Stock Photo.  The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). 1 (1768). ... Bark.  Pollen data indicates that the first spreading of C. sativa due to human activity started around 2100-2050 B.C. , Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health. cultivation in Roman times: New data from ancient Campania", "Distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) The fruit yield per tree is usually between 30–100 kg, but can get as high as 300 kg. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. The sap wood is narrow and generally usable where a waney edge feature … After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. Hyd-rolysis of sweet chestnut tannins leads to the formation of two important phenolic acids: gallic and ellagic acid. Furthermore, this characteristic is valuable in cases of celiac diseases as well as reducing coronary heart diseases and cancer rates. Spiral fissures may develop on old trunks; the bark is brown. Epub …  Flowers: Some catkins have male and female flowers on the same stalk. Sweet chestnut trees live to an age of 500 to 600 years.  Widespread use of chestnut in western Europe started in the early Middle Ages and flourished in the late Middle Ages. Sep 19th, 2011 by Richard.  Organic acids are thought to play an important role against diseases as an antioxidant. It is said to be between 2,000 and 4,000 years old. There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. It is a native of northern and central parts of Asia, from … The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. , This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. Typically a veteran sweet chestnut will be 150-300 years of age and a notable sweet chestnut may be 100-200 years old. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. The timber has a density of 560 kg per cubic meter, and due to its durability in ground contact is often used for external purposes such as fencing. 79. The sweet chestnut is a native of the Mediterranean region and the Romans probably introduced the sweet chestnut to Britain for its nuts (seeds) which are quite edible raw or cooked and can be made into flour or used as a coffee bean substitute. ", "Technological Parameters of Water Curing Affect Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Marrons (Castanea Sativa Mill., Marrone Fiorentino)", An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin, "Chemical composition of chestnut cultivars from Spain", "Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_sativa&oldid=991269411, Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The bark is radially crossed as it ascends the trunk.  Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yielding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval. nut shell than in extracts of eucalyptus bark. It is thought to have survived the last Ice Age in several refuges in southern Europe, on the southern coast of the Black Sea with a main centre on the southern slope of the Caucasus and in the region of north-western Syria, possibly extending into Lebanon. There is also a small risk of transmission by fruits or seeds.Locally, the spores of C. parasitica are spread by wind and water, but might a… By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased.  Compared to other crops, the sweet chestnut was probably of relatively minor importance and distributed very heterogeneously throughout these regions. By hand: The sweet chestnuts are harvested by rake or broom, with a harvest speed of 5 to 30 kg every hour depending on the soil relief. Raw horse chestnut seed, bark, flower, and leaf are UNSAFE and can … 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. These are catkins fully developed with burs that are ready to be pollinated. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree) is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. 301, 643 CE). in Europe", "Projektstudie: Die Edelkastanie auf Obstwiesen - Eine Alternative zum Kirschanbau?  Various composition and health studies have shown its big potential as a food ingredient and functional food. Image of foliage, form, texture - 129118645 Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing. It is often found in parkland as a specimen tree with a smooth grey bark and long dark green toothed leaves which contrast with the long, yellowish spring catkins. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age.  Theophrastus focuses mainly on the use of sweet chestnut wood as timber and charcoal, only mentioning the use of the fruit once when commenting on the digestive difficulties it causes, but praising its nourishing quality.  On the other hand, the consumer must consider that roasting, boiling or frying has a big impact on the nutritional profile of chestnut. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. About 16–28 cm long, 5–9 cm wide and oblong with a pointed tip and a serrated or toothed edge. Sweet Chestnut bark seating Whilst running the intro to green woodworking course we took the time to peel the bark from the sweet chestnut logs before riving them down, with the aim of using it for weaving, principally for seating the chairs that I will be making this summer. This Spring and Summer we have been experimenting with some of the uses of the bark from Sweet Chestnut Trees and wish to share some of our findings. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are around 25 years old. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest.  Low temperature in autumn can damage the fruit. Sweet Chestnut is a large, beautiful, quick growing tree. bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage Oxid Med Cell Longev. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C.  Nowadays, sweet chestnut production is sometimes seen at a turning point again, because the development of high-value sweet chestnut products combined with changing needs of an urban society is leading to a revival in C. sativa cultivation. , Similar to the introduction of grape vine and olive cultivation to the Latin world, C. sativa is thought to have been introduced during the colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks. , Increasing sweet chestnut pollen appearances in Switzerland, France, Germany and the Iberian peninsula in the first century A.D. suggests the spreading of cultivated sweet chestnut trees by the Romans. Record all sweet chestnut … They can also be used in confections, puddings, desserts and cakes. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. However, the ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name Castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts. Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks. Castanea sativa, the sweet chestnut, Spanish chestnut or just chestnut, is a species of tree in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. Credit: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy Stock Photo. The water in which you boil the chestnuts along with its shell or bark is rich in Tannins. Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. Introduced by the Romans and a roasted winter treat.  The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. The bark is smooth and greyish-green when young, becoming … A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted.  Some cultivars only produce one large seed per cupule, while others produce up to three seeds. Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating. Sweet chestnut has been found to be susceptible to fungal diseases. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) The pictures are pretty informative and there is a separate gallery of all the pictures related to this. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … Lifespan: 450 years Natural range: Mediterranean and Asia … Download our free Tree ID app for Android and iPhone to identify the UK's native and non-native trees.  The nut itself is composed of two skins: an external, shiny brown part, and an internal skin adhering to the fruit. In winter one of the easiest trees to identify is the Sweet Chestnut. The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) was probably introduced to Britain by the Romans. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well.  Further clues pointing to this theory can be found in the work of Pliny the Elder, who mentions only Greek colonies in connection with sweet chestnut cultivation. Ideally located in Fife Leisure Park (just off Junction 3 of the M90), we’re perfect for travellers, families visiting from the city centre, or visitors to the Bowlplex bowling alley and Odeon cinema. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. The sugar content is also affected by the high temperatures. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance.  Before planting, seeds must be stratified at 2-3 °C so germination can start 30–40 days later. In general, the climate should be similar to viticulture. Sweet chestnut , Another serious pest which is difficult to control is the gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphylus) which was recently introduced in Southern Europe, originating from Asia. In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. Twigs are purple-brown and buds are red-brown and oval in shape. The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. In south east England sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. Four processes are decisive for the degrading process of sugar while cooking: hydrolysis of starch to oligosaccharide and monosaccharide, decomposition of sucrose to glucose and fructose, caramelization of sugars and degradation of sugars. Registered office: Kempton Way, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6LL.  Several Greek authors wrote about medicinal properties of the sweet chestnut, specifically as a remedy against lacerations of the lips and of the oesophagus. Sweet chestnut. The nuts are a valuable food source for many mammals. , Tannin is found in the following proportions on a 10% moisture basis: bark (6.8%), wood (13.4%), seed husks (10 - 13%). They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker, thick, and deeply furrowed ; the furrows run longitudinally, and tend to twist around the trunk … GB520 6111 04.  The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. In Switzerland, it is often served as Vermicelles. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas.  Generally, glucose content in European chestnuts is very low and ranges from zero to traces.  Like Theophrastus, Latin authors are sceptical of the sweet chestnut as a fruit, and Pliny the Elder even goes as far as admiring how well nature has hidden this fruit of apparently so little value.  Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. In southeast England, sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles.Unlike the nuts of the horse chestnut, those of the sweet chestnut are edible to humans and can be roasted and used in a variety of recipes, including stuffing for poultry, cake fillings, nut roasts and much more. The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". Edible chestnuts or Sweet chestnuts (European chestnut (Castanea sativa); American chestnut (Castanea dentata)), but not horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum (also called Buckeye)), are safe to consume raw with few or no side effects.  In the beginning of the Christian era, people probably started to realize the value and versatility of sweet chestnut wood, leading to a slow spread of the cultivation of C. sativa trees, a theory that is supported by pollen data and literary sources, as well as the increased use of sweet chestnut wood as poles and in supporting structures, wood works and pier building between A.D. 100 and 600. All sweet chestnut will be ancient from 400 years onwards, although many will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years.  It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit. Find the perfect sweet chestnut tree bark stock photo. sativa.. Sweet chestnut is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers are found on the same tree. On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar), and roof beams notably in southern Europe (for example in houses of the Alpujarra, Spain, in southern France and elsewhere). How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. in Anatolia, northeastern Greece and southeastern Bulgaria. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. Bark, sweet chestnut tree.  Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings.  Optimal precipitation is between 400 and 1600 mm.
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